Total commander download free full version windows 7 and N29I to determine whether expression of human cationic trypsinogen in murine acinar cells promotes pancreatitis. Nordic Walking Please note that the subscriptions for the general fitness classes from July to December are open: Fvrier general fitness classes Jul-Dec Sign-up to the Fitness Club mailing list here Nordic Walking: Sign-up to the Nordic Walking mailing list here Beginners Nordic walking lessons Monday Lunchtimes rdv for departure Liver biopsy was used as the reference standard. Expression of the proteins of interest was confirmed using lysates from HER2-overexpressing tumors and through analysis of publicly available RNA expression data. Il y en a pour tous les genres.">

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Bim is a member of the pro- apoptotic BH3-only Bcl-2 family of proteins. The smallest variant BimS is the most potent inducer of apoptosis. Other metals cadmium, cobalt and copper and stresses oxidative, endoplasmic reticulum and genotoxic stresses had little or no effect on the expression of BimS. Deletion analysis using the Bim mini-gene revealed that predicted binding sites of the SR protein SRSF6, also known as SRp55, are located in the intronic region adjacent to exon 4. Campos, Jaqueline F.

Phytochemical studies are seeking new alternatives to prevent or treat cancer, including different types of leukemias. Campomanesia adamantium, commonly known as guavira or guabiroba, exhibits pharmacological properties including antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antiproliferative activities.

Considering the anticancer potential of this plant species, the aim of this study was to evaluate the antileukemic activity and the chemical composition of aqueous extracts from the leaves AECL and roots AECR of C.

The cytotoxicity promoted by these extracts were evaluated using human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and Jurkat leukemic cell line.

Changes in the mitochondrial membrane potential, the activity of caspases, and intracellular calcium levels were assessed. The cell cycle profile was evaluated using propidium iodide. Both extracts caused concentration-dependent cytotoxicity only in Jurkat cells via late apoptosis. This activity was associated with loss of the mitochondrial membrane potential, activation of caspases-9 and -3, changes in intracellular calcium levels, and cell cycle arrest in S-phase.

Therefore, the antileukemic activity of the AECL and AECR is mediated by mitochondrial dysfunction and intracellular messengers, which activate the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. Hence, aqueous extracts of the leaves and roots of C. Researchers at the NCI have developed a new therapeutic strategy for lung cancer using secretoglobin family 3A member 2 SCGB3A2 , as a cell proliferative and anti- apoptotic agent.

SCGB3A2 can be used to inhibit lung damage that results from treatment with anti-cancer agents. NCI seeks parties to license or co-develop this technology. Red blood cell RBC alloimmunization is a major immunologic risk of transfusion. We investigated the behavior of WBCs, and apoptosis in particular, in RBC units during storage and then studied the impact of WBC apoptosis on the modulation of posttransfusion alloimmunization in RBC products stored short term.

WBCs undergoing apoptosis released during short-term storage factors modulating RBC alloimmunization. Indeed apoptotic cell-released factors modulate alloimmunization whereas exogenous apoptotic cells directly transfused with LR RBCs did not.

Evidence suggests that mitochondrial dysfunction may be linked to PD through a variety of different pathways, including free-radical generation and dysfunction of the mitochondrial Complex I activity.

Increased oxidized proteins and peroxynitrite, and mitochondrial or cytosol translocation of Bim, Bax or cytochrome c in the striatum was observed after 2—4 weeks of rotenone infusion. After 28 days of systemic rotenone exposure, imunohistochemical staining for tyrosine hydroxylase indicated nigrostriatal dopaminergic neuronal cell degeneration.

Characteristic histochemical TUNEL or activated caspase-3 staining or ultrastructural electron microscopy features of apoptotic cell death were present in the striatal neuronal cell after chronic rotenone intoxication. Previously, we demonstrated that Nex1 is a key regulatory component of the nerve growth factor NGF pathway. Further supporting this hypothesis, this study shows that Nex1 has survival-inducing properties similar to NGF, as Nex1-overexpressing PC12 cells survive in the absence of trophic factors.

We dissected the molecular mechanism by which Nex1 confers neuroprotection upon serum removal and found that constitutive expression of Nex1 maintained the expression of specific G1 phase cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors and concomitantly induced a dynamic expression profile of key anti- apoptotic regulators. This study provides the first evidence of the underlying mechanism by which a member of the NeuroD-subfamily promotes an active anti- apoptotic program essential to the survival of neurons.

Our results suggest that the survival program may be viewed as an integral component of the intrinsic programming of the differ entiated state. Clearance of Apoptotic Photoreceptors. The effective phagocytotic clearance of apoptotic debris is fundamental to the maintenance of neural tissues during apoptosis. Retinal photoreceptors undergo apoptosis after retinal detachment.

Although their induction phase of apoptosis has been well discussed, their phagocytotic process remains quite unclear. We herein demonstrate that apoptotic photoreceptors are selectively eliminated from their physiological localization, the outer nuclear layer, to the subretinal space, and then phagocytosed by monocyte-derived macrophages.

This could be shown by an ultrastructural and immunophenotypic analysis. Moreover, in chimera mice expressing transgenic green fluorescent protein in bone marrow-derived cells, the local infiltration of macrophages could be detected after retinal detachment-induced photoreceptor apoptosis.

Importantly, the level of blockade obtained with these reagents was different. Although anti-PSR increased the frequency of apoptotic cells that fail to bind to macrophages, GRGDSP prevented the engulfment but not the recognition of apoptotic photoreceptor cells by macrophages.

To our knowledge, this is the first report describing the mechanisms through which apoptotic photoreceptors are selectively eliminated via a directional process in the subretinal space. We previously found that genetic polymorphism in cytochrome P 2A6 CYP2A6 is one of the potential determinants of tobacco-related lung cancer risk. It has been reported that the plasma concentration of cotinine, a major metabolite of nicotine, in carriers of wild-type alleles of CYP2A6 is considerably higher than that in carriers of null or reduced-function alleles of CYP2A6, raising the possibility that cotinine plays an important role in the development of lung cancer.

As a novel mechanism of lung tumorigenesis mediated by CYP2A6, we investigated the effects of cotinine on the suppression of apoptosis and promotion of lung tumor growth.

In human lung adenocarcinoma A cells, cotinine inhibited doxorubicin-induced cell death by suppressing caspase-mediated apoptosis. Enhanced phosphorylation of Akt, a key factor responsible for cell survival and inhibition of apoptosis, was detected after cotinine treatment. We herein propose that cotinine induces tumor promotion by inhibiting apoptosis and enhancing cellular proliferation, thus underlining the importance of CYP2A6 in tobacco-related lung tumorigenesis.

Apoptotic Cell Clearance in Development. Programmed cell death and its specific form apoptosis play an important role during development of multicellular organisms. They are crucial for morphogenesis and organ sculpting as well as for adjusting cell number in different systems. Removal of apoptotic cells is the last critical step of apoptosis.

Apoptotic cells are properly and efficiently recognized and eliminated through phagocytosis, which is performed by professional and nonprofessional phagocytes. Phagocytosis of apoptotic cells or apoptotic cell clearance is a dynamic multistep process, involving interactions between phagocytic receptors and ligands on apoptotic cells, which are highly conserved in evolution. However, this process is extremely redundant in mammals, containing multiple factors playing similar roles in the process.

Using model organisms such as Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster, zebrafish, and mouse permits addressing fundamental questions in developmental cell clearance by a comprehensive approach including powerful genetics and cell biological tools enriched by live imaging.

Recent studies in model organisms have enhanced significantly our understanding of the molecular and cellular basis of apoptotic cell clearance during development. Here, we review the current knowledge and illuminate the great potential of the research performed in genetic models, which opens new directions in developmental biology.

Allograft tolerance induced by donor apoptotic lymphocytes requires phagocytosis in the recipient. Cell death through apoptosis plays a critical role in regulating cellular homeostasis. Whether the disposal of apoptotic cells through phagocytosis can actively induce immune tolerance in vivo, however, remains controversial.

Here, we report in a rat model that without using immunosuppressants, transfusion of apoptotic splenocytes from the donor strain prior to transplant dramatically prolonged survival of heart allografts. Histological analysis verified that rejection signs were significantly ameliorated. Splenocytes from rats transfused with donor apoptotic cells showed a dramatically decreased response to donor lymphocyte stimulation.

Most importantly, blockade of phagocytosis in vivo, either with gadolinium chloride to disrupt phagocyte function or with annexin V to block binding of exposed phosphotidylserine to its receptor on phagocytes, abolished the beneficial effect of transfused apoptotic cells on heart allograft survival. Our results demonstrate that donor apoptotic cells promote specific allograft acceptance and that phagocytosis of apoptotic cells in vivo plays a crucial role in maintaining immune tolerance. Adiponectin modulates inflammatory reactions via calreticulin receptor—dependent clearance of early apoptotic bodies.

Obesity and type 2 diabetes are associated with chronic inflammation. Adiponectin is an adipocyte-derived hormone with antidiabetic and antiinflammatory actions. Here, we demonstrate what we believe to be a previously undocumented activity of adiponectin, facilitating the uptake of early apoptotic cells by macrophages, an essential feature of immune system function.

Adiponectin-deficient APN-KO mice were impaired in their ability to clear apoptotic thymocytes in response to dexamethasone treatment, and these animals displayed a reduced ability to clear early apoptotic cells that were injected into their intraperitoneal cavities. Conversely, adiponectin administration promoted the clearance of apoptotic cells by macrophages in both APN-KO and wild-type mice. Adiponectin overexpression also promoted apoptotic cell clearance and reduced features of autoimmunity in lpr mice whereas adiponectin deficiency in lpr mice led to a further reduction in apoptotic cell clearance, which was accompanied by exacerbated systemic inflammation.

Adiponectin was capable of opsonizing apoptotic cells, and phagocytosis of cell corpses was mediated by the binding of adiponectin to calreticulin on the macrophage cell surface. We propose that adiponectin protects the organism from systemic inflammation by promoting the clearance of early apoptotic cells by macrophages through a receptor-dependent pathway involving calreticulin. Surface code—biophysical signals for apoptotic cell clearance.

Apoptotic cell death and the clearance of dying cells play an important and physiological role in embryonic development and normal tissue turnover. In contrast to necrosis, apoptosis proceeds in an anti-inflammatory manner. PS is recognized by a number of innate receptors as well as by soluble bridging molecules on the surface of phagocytes. Importantly, phagocytes are able to discriminate between viable and apoptotic cells both exposing PS.

Due to cytoskeleton remodeling PS has a higher lateral mobility on the surfaces of apoptotic cells thereby promoting receptor clustering on the phagocyte. An efficient and fast clearance of apoptotic cells is required to prevent secondary necrosis and leakage of intracellular danger signals into the surrounding tissue.

Failure or prolongation of the clearance process leads to the release of intracellular antigens into the periphery provoking inflammation and development of systemic inflammatory autoimmune disease like systemic lupus erythematosus. Here we review the current findings concerning apoptosis-inducing pathways, important players of apoptotic cell recognition and clearance as well as the role of membrane remodeling in the engulfment of apoptotic cells by phagocytes.

Caspase selective reagents for diagnosing apoptotic mechanisms. Apical caspases initiate and effector caspases execute apoptosis. Reagents that can distinguish between caspases, particularly apical caspases-8, 9, and 10 are scarce and generally nonspecific. Based upon a previously described large-scale screen of peptide-based caspase substrates termed HyCoSuL, we sought to develop reagents to distinguish between apical caspases in order to reveal their function in apoptotic cell death paradigms.

To this end, we selected tetrapeptide-based sequences that deliver optimal substrate selectivity and converted them to inhibitors equipped with a detectable tag activity-based probes-ABPs. We demonstrate a strong relationship between substrate kinetics and ABP kinetics.

To evaluate the utility of selective substrates and ABPs, we examined distinct apoptosis pathways in Jurkat T lymphocyte and MDA-MB breast cancer lines triggered to undergo cell death via extrinsic or intrinsic apoptosis. We report the first highly selective substrate appropriate for quantitation of caspase-8 activity during apoptosis. Converting substrates to ABPs promoted loss-of-activity and selectivity, thus we could not define a single ABP capable of detecting individual apical caspases in complex mixtures.

To overcome this, we developed a panel strategy utilizing several caspase-selective ABPs to interrogate apoptosis, revealing the first chemistry-based approach to uncover the participation of caspase-8, but not caspase-9 or in TRAIL-induced extrinsic apoptosis.

We propose that using select panels of ABPs can provide information regarding caspase-8 apoptotic signaling more faithfully than can single, generally nonspecific reagents. This article gives an overview of the promotion process in an academic medical center. A description of different promotional tracks, tenure and endowed chairs, and the process of submitting an application is provided.

Finally, some practical advice about developing skills and attributes that can help with academic growth and promotion is dispensed. Malignant cells routinely violate cellular checkpoints that should initiate cell death in normal cells by triggering pro- apoptotic members of the BCL-2 family of proteins. These family members prevent death by sequestering pro- apoptotic molecules.

To counter this resistance mechanism, small molecule inhibitors of anti- apoptotic BCL-2 family members have been under development. These molecules have shown promise in pre-clinical and clinical testing to overcome apoptotic resistance, prompting cancer cells to undergo apoptosis. Alternatively, other strategies have taken advantage of the normal regulatory machinery controlling anti- apoptotic molecules and have used inhibitors of signaling pathways to down-modulate the expression of anti- apoptotic molecules thus tilting the balance in cancer cells to cell death.

This review explores recent developments and strategies aimed at antagonizing anti- apoptotic BCL-2 family member action to promote the induction of cell death in cancer therapy. Bacterial anti- apoptotic activities. Cell death by apoptosis is a common response to environmental stimuli and a frequent event in a multicellular organism.

Not surprisingly, apoptosis is also found in microbial infections where it may contribute to progression and outcome. Perhaps less predictably, a number of bacteria have also been found to alleviate or even to inhibit apoptosis. Today we are at a point where our in some parts detailed knowledge of the molecular pathway to apoptosis allows us to probe situations in biology for the occurrence of apoptosis and to inquire into mechanisms of apoptosis induction and inhibition.

In this brief article we will focus on anti- apoptotic activities exhibited by various bacteria. We will attempt to present the current knowledge on how the contact between mammalian and bacterial cell decrees resistance to apoptosis, what the respective contributions of the two partners are and how this interaction relates to the molecular path to apoptosis.

Apoptotic Signaling in Mouse Odontogenesis. Abstract Apoptosis is an important morphogenetic event in embryogenesis as well as during postnatal life. In the last 2 decades, apoptosis in tooth development odontogenesis has been investigated with gradually increasing focus on the mechanisms and signaling pathways involved. The molecular machinery responsible for apoptosis exhibits a high degree of conservation but also organ and tissue specific patterns. This review aims to discuss recent knowledge about apoptotic signaling networks during odontogenesis, concentrating on the mouse, which is often used as a model organism for human dentistry.

Apoptosis accompanies the entire development of the tooth and corresponding remodeling of the surrounding bony tissue. It is most evident in its role in the elimination of signaling centers within developing teeth, removal of vestigal tooth germs, and in odontoblast and ameloblast organization during tooth mineralization. Dental apoptosis is caspase dependent and proceeds via mitochondrial mediated cell death with possible amplification by Fas-FasL signaling modulated by Bcl-2 family members.

Phosphorylation of Puma modulates its apoptotic function by regulating protein stability. Puma expression is normally kept very low, but can be induced by several transcription factors including p53, p73, E2F1 and FOXO3a, whereby it can induce an apoptotic response.

As Puma can to bind and inactivate all anti- apoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family, its activity must be tightly controlled. We report here, for the first time, evidence that Puma is subject to post-translational control through phosphorylation.

We show that Puma is phosphorylated at multiple sites, with the major site of phosphorylation being serine Replacing serine 10 with alanine causes reduced Puma turnover and enhanced cell death.

Interestingly, Puma turnover occurs through the proteasome, and substitution of serine 10 causes elevated Puma levels independently of macroautophagy, Bcl-2 family member binding, caspase activity and apoptotic death. We conclude, therefore, that phosphorylation of Puma at serine 10 promotes Puma turnover, represses Puma's cell death potential and promotes cell survival. Owing to the highly pro- apoptotic nature of Puma, these studies highlight an important additional regulatory step in the determination of cellular life or death.

Clearance of apoptotic cells is the final stage of programmed cell death. Uncleared corpses can become secondarily necrotic, promoting inflammation and autoimmunity.

Remarkably, even in tissues with high cellular turnover, apoptotic cells are rarely seen because of efficient clearance mechanisms in healthy individuals.

Recently, significant progress has been made in understanding the steps involved in prompt cell clearance in vivo. Tamoxifen induces apoptotic neutrophil efferocytosis in horses. Macrophages and neutrophils are important cellular components in the process of acute inflammation and its subsequent resolution, and evidence increasingly suggests that they play important functions during the resolution of chronic, adaptive inflammatory processes.

Exacerbated neutrophil activity can be harmful to surrounding tissues; this is important in a range of diseases, including allergic asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in humans, and equine asthma also known as recurrent airway obstruction RAO. Tamoxifen TX is a non-steroidal estrogen receptor modulator with effects on cell growth and survival.

Previous studies showed that TX treatment in horses with induced acute pulmonary inflammation promoted early apoptosis of blood and BALF neutrophils, reduction of BALF neutrophils, and improvement in animals' clinical status.

The aim of this study was to describe if TX induces in vitro efferocytosis of neutrophils by alveolar macrophages. Efferocytosis assay, myeloperoxidase MPO detection and translocation phosphatidylserine PS were performed on neutrophils isolated from peripheral blood samples from five healthy horses.

Skip to main content Skip to table of contents. Advertisement Hide. The first phase included semi-structured interviews conducted in a group of drug users willing to participate in the study. Based on the analysis of transcripts and additional data, the original questionnaire Risky behaviour of illicit drug users during travels was developed and filled in anonymously and on a voluntary basis at the network of Centres for Prevention and Treatment of Drug Addiction.

Univariate analysis between independent and dependent factors was conducted based on chi-square test and t-test for independent factors. Multivariate analysis of the impact of independent factors on the dependent factor was conducted based on binary logistic regression. Results: The questionnaire was filled out anonymously and voluntarily by individuals in 14 Slovene centres for prevention and treatment of drug addiction.

The results confirmed the first hypothesis that drug users travelling away from their permanent residence are more likely to share their injecting equipment, and engage in unprotected sex and in drug -related crime, and the second hypothesis stating that illegal drug users included in the substitution treatment programmes, who regularly use drugs at home, more often.

Methamphetamine Use in Club Subcultures. In recent decades, methamphetamine developed a peculiar geographic distribution in the United States, with limited diffusion in the Northeast. While use within gay clubs received attention, methamphetamine in club subcultures more broadly remains less clear. Using quantitative and qualitative data, we provide a descriptive assessment of methamphetamine use in club subcultures. Methamphetamine use in club subcultures often has instrumental purposes.

The context of initiation into methamphetamine use and its close connection to cocaine shape later patterns of use. Viewing meth solely as a gay party drug misses a significant part of the population and may misguide public health strategies to reduce methamphetamine use in the Northeast.

Full Text Available In studies with questionnaires the main reason reported for trying drugs is the curiosity. However, curiosity does not have an unambiguous meaning. The word itself in English as well as in Hungarian has more, sometimes contradictory meanings. In my own research I examined the usage of the term curiosity among injecting and non-injecting drug users in qualitative interviews, conducted in Hungary.

I encountered different functions of curiosity: in accounts it appeared as an excuse or, less frequently, as justification of drug use behaviour. Contrary to dominant contemporary drug policy literature, drug users themselves rarely used curiosity as the cause of their drug use in the context of its risk or dangers. The results of this research on curiosity demonstrate that the normalisation of drug use, which is already in progress in Western countries, has not yet taken place in Hungary.

URN: urn:nbn:defqs Yoga club. Since the enactment of the legislative measures favoring the prescription of generic drugs , various quantitative studies have shown that approval by prescribers and users has risen in France.

Nevertheless, scepticism remains as well as distrust towards these drugs focusing on their effectiveness compared with brand-name drugs , on potential dangers, and on the interruption they cause in prescription and consumption habits.

Using a comprehensive approach, this article analyzes the social and cultural logic behind the negative image of generic drugs. The materials issued from an ethnographic study on the prescription of drugs for high blood pressure. Sixty-eight interviews were undertaken between April and October with people 39 women and 29 men, between the age of 40 and 95, 52 over the age of 60 treated for over a year for high blood pressure in rural areas in the Southeast of France.

Thirteen people provided unsolicited opinions about generic drugs. Analysis of the information collected shows that users have various representations of generic drugs , including the idea of counterfeited and foreign drugs. These representations interfere with the adjustment process and the development of consumer loyalty. They are part of a set of social representations about drugs which form and express the user 's reality. In these representations, the drug is an ambivalent object, carrier of both biological effectiveness and toxicity; it is also the metonymical extension of the prescriber, bestowing upon the prescription a symbolic value.

By placing the generic drug in its network of symbolic and social meaning, this study highlights the coherence of the scepticism towards generic drugs by consumers and prescribers with a system of common opinion in which drugs are everyday things, personalized and compatible with users , symbolic exchange carriers in the physician-patient relationship, and in which confidence in the drug is also that given to the health care.

The spread of HIV among drug and alcohol users , as a high-risk group, is a significant problem in Africa, as in other Drug problems in contemporary China: a profile of Chinese drug users in a metropolitan area. Drug problems are reemerging in China since the nation implemented economic reform and an "open door" policy in the early s. This is causing both national and international concern. However, knowledge and understanding of the Chinese drug problem is fairly limited because of the nation's unique social and political history.

In response to this shortage of information, our study presents a profile of Chinese drug users. Data were collected from a survey of drug users attending mandatory treatment centres in a large city in We present a demographic profile of the drug users , describe their patterns of drug use, their access to drugs and their history of drug treatment.

Chinese drug users , like those from the U. However, they are more likely than those in the U. This profile of drug users is informative and valuable for drug prevention, intervention, and treatment in the Chinese setting because knowing and understanding the drug population is essential for effective control. Drug abuse has been widely linked to suicide risk. We examined the factors that affect adolescent drug users ' suicide attempts in South Korea.

This study analyzed the data of adolescents who had used drugs such as inhalants, psychotropic drugs , and marijuana males and females. Among subjects, A cross-sectional analysis of baseline data collected during a secondary prevention intervention study was conducted to describe patterns of drug use in a non-treatment sample of young drug users recruited in ten further-education colleges across inner London.

HIV antibodies among intravenous drug users in Bahrain. A month study was conducted to identify risk factors for human immunodeficiency virus HIV infections among intravenous drug users IDU attending drug rehabilitation clinic of the Psychiatric Hospital, Manama, Bahrain. Patients provided demographic and behavioural information based on a questionnaire. Two hundred and forty male IDUs participated in the study on voluntary basis.

The seroprevalence of HIV was The presence of HIV antibody was associated with educational status, frequency of injecting drugs and needle sharing.

Ski club. The CERN Cricket Club has had a good start to the season, winning five and losing two matches, with one cancelled due to torrential rain in the South of France. Anyone interested in playing cricket is welcome to join us at net practice, which takes place every week at on the Prevessin site.

Fitness club. There are shower facilities for both men and women. It is possible to pay for 1, 2 or 3 classes per week for a minimum of 1 month and up to 6 months.

Fitness Club. Burri cern. The start of the Cricket season is upon us! All newcomers will be made very welcome. The first practice match will be on Sunday, 18 April. The CERN Cricket Club has had a mixed first month of what has been the wettest and coldest start to a season ever, winning two and losing two matches, with one cancelled.

Anyone interested in playing cricket is welcome to join us at net practice, which takes place on the Prevessin site each Thursday evening from to around weather permitting — several sessions have already been cancelled due to the inclement weather.

Music Club. The event will take place from 14h00 to 20h00 on Saturday 25th June on the terrace of restaurant no 1. Impact of HIV prevention programs on drug users in Malaysia. Faced with a rising HIV epidemic among injecting drug users , harm reduction policies and programs were introduced in Malaysia in The positive impact seen since the introduction of these programs comprise the inclusion of the health aspects of illicit drug use in the country's drug policies; better access to antiretroviral therapy for injecting drug users who are HIV infected; reduction in HIV-risk behavior; and greater social benefits, including increased employment.

Despite these achievements, tension between law enforcement and public health persists, as harm reduction exists alongside an overall drug policy that is based on abstinence and zero tolerance. Unless there is harmonization of this policy, sustainability and scale-up of harm reduction programs will remain a challenge.

Payments made directly to instructor. Fitness Club Fitness Club c Orienteering club. Orienteering Club. Reprise des cours — Venez nombreux! Couple : CHF par personne.

The generic drug user fee amendments: an economic perspective. We explain how user fees required under GDUFA I erected barriers to entry and created scale and scope economies for incumbent manufacturers. In order to initiate and sustain user fees under GDUFA legislation, FDA requires the submission of self-reported data on generic manufacturers including domestic and foreign facilities.

These data are public and our examination of them provides an unprecedented window into the recent organization of generic drug manufacturers supplying the US market. Our results suggest that generic drug manufacturing is increasingly concentrated and foreign. Suicidal behaviours in male and female users of illicit drugs recruited in drug treatment facilities. Suicide risk needs to be evaluated in drug treatment facilities and psychological status and context contemplated. The Federal Food, Drug , and Cosmetic The Festival will feature music by your favourite bands and artists from the Club.

For more information, either send an e-mail mailto:music. Without this support this event could not take place. Petanque club. German Theme Those interested in helping should come along. It is also obviously a good opportunity to meet new friends. Everyone is welcome to join us to meet fo Les rendez-vous de la coupe genevoise pour les deux prochaines semaines seront: - le vendredi 11 octobre aux Evaux pou Do adolescent Ecstasy users have different attitudes towards drugs when compared to Marijuana users?

Background Perceived risk and attitudes about the consequences of drug use, perceptions of others expectations and self-efficacy influence the intent to try drugs and continue drug use once use has started. Data were analyzed using jackknife weighted multinomial logistic regression models. Results Adolescent marijuana and ecstasy users were more likely to approve of marijuana and ecstasy use as compared to non- drug using youth.

Adolescent marijuana and ecstasy users were more likely to have close friends who approved of ecstasy as compared to non- drug using youth. The magnitudes of these two associations were stronger for ecstasy use than for marijuana use in the final adjusted model. Our final adjusted model shows that approval of marijuana and ecstasy use was more strongly associated with marijuana and ecstasy use in adolescence than perceived risk in using both drugs.

Any nominations should be sent to the Secretary in time for the Meeting. Croquet Club. July to give croquet coaching to all level of players. If you are interested in this opportunity to discover a new sport or rekindle a liking for a game which you may well have played in your garden, please contact me.

The coaching sessions, which will be held during the day and early evening, will be adapted to cater for the requirements of those participants who come along. There is no cost and I can assure you of a few free drinks in the Club House afterward each session. Please contact me, the SCA President david. Golf Club. Would you like to learn a new sport and meet new people? If you are interested in participating in these lessons or need more details, please contact us by email at: club -golf-committee cern.

HIV prevention among drug and alcohol users : models of The spread of HIV among drug and alcohol users , as a high-risk group, is a significant problem in Africa, as in other parts of the world.

Few programs have been implemented in Africa to deal specifically with this issue. Five-Factor Model personality profiles of drug users. Full Text Available Abstract Background Personality traits are considered risk factors for drug use, and, in turn, the psychoactive substances impact individuals' traits.

Furthermore, there is increasing interest in developing treatment approaches that match an individual's personality profile. To advance our knowledge of the role of individual differences in drug use, the present study compares the personality profile of tobacco, marijuana, cocaine, and heroin users and non- users using the wide spectrum Five-Factor Model FFM of personality in a diverse community sample. The sample was drawn from a community with a wide range of socio-economic conditions.

Results Compared to never smokers, current cigarette smokers score lower on Conscientiousness and higher on Neuroticism.

By contrast, marijuana users score high on Openness to Experience, average on Neuroticism, but low on Agreeableness and Conscientiousness.

Conclusion In addition to confirming high levels of negative affect and impulsive traits, this study highlights the links between drug use and low Conscientiousness. These links provide insight into the etiology of drug use and have implications for public health interventions. Research on pregnancy and sexual health among homeless youth is limited.

In this study, qualitative interviews were conducted with 41 homeless young injection drug users IDUs in Los Angeles with a history of pregnancy. The relationship between recent pregnancy outcomes, contraception practices, housing status, substance use, utilization of….

Robust relationships between the presence of comorbidity and increased levels of risk behavior, such as needle sharing and trading sex for money, were revealed. Contains 44 references and 2 tables.

Perceptions of parental bonding in freebase cocaine users versus non-illicit drug users. This study was undertaken to investigate the perception of crack smoke cocaine users and non- users about parental bonding quality regarding care and control in Brazil. Il reste des places dans certains cours de yoga. Contact: icideja yahoo. Dates and time: Drugs and personality: comparison of drug users , nonusers, and other clinical groups on the 16PF.

This article reviews published 16PF research on drug users. No significant differences were found among drug user groups, but the profile of the nonuser group was distinctive. K-Means Cluster Analyses, as well as Cattell's Similarity and Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficients, were used to compare profiles of these new samples with the 19 groups described in an earlier meta-analysis of published 16PF studies.

Data from the new samples did not cluster with data from other published research, although certain specific similarities appeared in more detailed correlational analyses.

Effectiveness of HIV prevention social marketing with injecting drug users. Social marketing involves applying marketing principles to promote social goods. In the context of health behavior, it has been used successfully to reduce alcohol-related car crashes, smoking among youths, and malaria transmission, among other goals.

Features of social marketing, such as audience segmentation and repeated exposure to prevention messages, distinguish it from traditional health promotion programs.

A recent review found 8 of 10 rigorously evaluated social marketing interventions responsible for changes in HIV-related behavior or behavioral intentions. We studied injection drug users to evaluate a community-based social marketing campaign to reduce injection risk behavior among drug users in Sacramento, California. Injecting drugs is associated with HIV infection in more than countries worldwide. The influence of age and gender on party drug use among young adults attending dance events, clubs , and rock festivals in Belgium.

A random sample of visitors of dance events, clubs , and rock festivals in Belgium Flanders was selected to complete an anonymous survey regarding their use of "party" drugs alcohol, cannabis, xtc, cocaine, and amphetamines and patterns of going out.

The results of respondents recruited in are reported and compared with for gender and age. Drug use in these nightlife settings is higher than in the general population. In younger age groups, the illegal drug use increases, but it decreases in older age groups. This might be linked to more responsibilities. Men still use drugs more often than women, but the gender differences seem to decrease. The changing role of women in society could be an explanation for this evolution.

Limitations and implications of this research are discussed. The fee remains unchanged: 50 CHF. We remind you everyone working on CERN site is entitled to become a member of our club , this includes industrial support personnel and staff of companies which have a contract with CERN.

We will be happy to welcome you and show you the facilities, or you can visit our web site. Le club propose aussi Il ne reste plus que 3 rendez-vous pour boucler la saison. Record Club. For the younger generation there is Cars 2 and Kung Fu Panda 2. The Club is now open every Monday, Wednesday and Friday Other highlights include the latest Harry Potter release and some movies from the past you may have missed including the first in the Terminator series. There is also a hits collection from NRJ.

We are extremely fortunate to have two magnificent wonderfully maintained lawns, the best on mainland Europe, on which to play. The CERN club members have their own clubhouse, and fully stocked bar, and all the necessary equipment at their disposal.

For prospective new members we offer introductory lessons by way of initiation into this exciting sport which is both skilful and challenging yet uniquely enjoyable. We have in our club players ranked in the top in the World. Nordic Walking Classes Sessions of four classes of one hour each are held on Tuesdays.

RDV barracks parking at Entrance A, 10 minutes before class time. Powerlifting is a strength sport, which is simple as and efficient. The "" are the three basic lifts bench press Il y en a pour tous les genres.

Oystein Midttun. Technique moyen : 1. Christophe Ingold, 3. Christina Falga. Technique court : 1. Emese Szunyog, 3. Facile moyen : 1. Elisa P The Croquet Club was founded on 25th May , playing on the lawn in front of restaurant no.

During this. The article inquires into the representation of women in the paintings and engravings about witchcraft in the XVI-XVII centuries, trying to establish an iconographic typology and covering the construction of negative stigmas attributed to the feminine body and its natural degradation.

Abstract: his paper proposes to think the Inquisition, mainly medieval, as an extension or Catholic organization that sought to eradicate those who opposed the beliefs and morality preached by the Church.

Keywords: Inquisition — Witchcraft — Ritual. Iconographic Research. All the inside of the church was covered with frescoes, but my attention focused on the paintings in the narthex. Hopi Indian Witchcraft and Healing. Desuden inddrages kognitive teorier Review of Portuguese Cistercian Monastic Heritage. This paper aims to present a contribution to the history of the reform and renewal in the Portuguese Cistercian monasteries throughout almost nine centuries of cultural and architectural history in this Country.

The Cistercian Order played a remarkable role in the affirmation of Portugal and had unquestionable position, since the medieval period, in the construction of a significant part of the Portuguese culture. In fact, the Portuguese Cistercian Monasteries absorbed the regional ways of construction with masonry granite in the north and limestone in the south but it is without a doubt in its architecture that change and renewal can be found as strength and a tool for achieving a status of cultural landmarks.

The renewal and reform in the Portuguese Cistercian Monasteries was not restricted to the styles in vogue but also was related to the physical expansion of the monasteries. Though there are cases of unconventional renewals and reformations such as the existence of two churches in the Monastery of Salzedas and the example of the open air Museum of the Monastery of S. This continuous architectonic renewal is still being carried out in the 21st century either by the Portuguese Government, through several heritage institutes since the 20th century, or a few individuals on their one.

The history of the Portuguese Cistercian Monasteries blends itself with the history of Portugal as the continuous architectonic renewals and reforms were also a result of nine centuries of events and changes in this Country. Magia e superstizione: viaggio nel tempo. Michael D. Based on a wide scholarship of the history of magic and witchcraft , it gives readers a comparative perspective on how different Western societies viewed and categorized magic and superstition , and how magical traditions changed and adapted to different historical conditions.

Bailey looks at Joan of Arc: Sanctity, witchcraft or epilepsy? The objective of this article is to describe whether Joan of Arc had epilepsy and how that may have influenced her sense of mission and ability to encourage thousands of people to help her to chase the English out of France. Documentation of her Trial of Condemnation in provides a description of her episodes of experienced voices and visions.

From the age of thirteen, Joan of Arc experienced frequent episodes of auditory hallucinations associated with elementary or complex visual hallucinations e.

These had sudden onset, lasting seconds or minutes at most, and occurred when awake or during sleep, arousing her. Some could be triggered by an auditory stimulus. She had no disorganized thought between the episodes. The semiology of the episodes is very suggestive of epileptic seizures, which have been considered as ecstatic by some authors or as partial epilepsy with auditory features by others, which seems more concordant with the ictal symptoms.

The auditory and visual hallucinations could have had a religious content because during her childhood and adolescence, she was brought up in a religious environment, insomuch as this content first undefined only appeared after a few seizures. We can suppose that such hallucinations, without the knowledge of their medical origin, gave her a sense of divine mission, hence, a real strength to try to accomplish the orders she heard during the episodes.

Her role during the Hundred Years' War and her narration of her strange episodes led her to be burned for heresy at the age of nineteen, yet rehabilitated 25 years later and to be canonized for her achievements in Transforming the monastic heritage of Galicia into hotels.

Full Text Available The recovery of monuments by means of the allocation of new distinct uses to the original ones is an increasingly frequent practice in the management of architectural heritage.

The origin of this activity goes back to the beginning of the 20th century with the birth of a consciousness about the importance heritage possessed for the flourishing tourist industry. The creation of a varied state network of accommodations originated a new kind of hotel that it would be installed in run-down buildings which, once restored would regain their utility, achieving to harmonise the protection of the Spanish monumental heritage with the impulse of tourism.

This practice quickly spread throughout the whole country, and also throughout Galicia. Convergence of Monastic and Modern Education in Bhutan? In the s, the Royal Government of Bhutan began developing its modern educational system. Over time, a strategic plan was formulated to meet Education for All and Millennium Development Goals.

In , the Royal University of Bhutan, the country's first university, opened its doors. It is proposed that the university is likely to become a catalyst for development, and an influential representative of and for a cultural identity. Will it become an elite institution?

Will the institution offer formal degrees for all who qualify? It is suggested that the issues considered in Bhutan may be of significance for other new universities attempting to establish themselves in the developing world. Full Text Available The holy monks Desert Fathers, confessors, hermits, founders of institutions or monastic status etc. Sabbas in the Holy Land.

Full Text Available Even at the dawn of a full-fledged information society Homo Informaticus as well as its netted counterpart - Homo Irretitus - already carries a handful of badly compatible fears and hopes.

First, anxieties about an inevitable desolation of habitual patterns of human interaction and values,as well as an inexorably impending threat of horrifying global control. Second, evergreen optimism of rapidly approaching egalitarian era under the pledge of free universal access to information, cornucopian abundance of all imaginable material and spiritual goods, and unrestricted reign of knowledge once for all overthrowing unjust orders of power and brute force.

The article puts under the close scrutiny the key pro et contra arguments involved in the theoretical articulation of these basic attitudes and examines the topical question: why can neither the dreadful fears nor the gay hopes of Homo Irretitus be reasonably sustained in the face of critical inquiry? To poeticize or the necessary superstition of language. To further put the woman in position of gender inequality, the man weaves such superstitious She is childless.

As a highly revered institution in traditional Africa, the purpose for marriage Watching the witching world: The role of superstition in In line with the traditional storytelling structure, the force of good needs an antagonist in the One thing that Geographies of superstition , myths, freedom: Ibsen and Northern Norway.

Full Text Available Ibsen visited Northern Norway only once in his lifetime and this was in the summer of Despite this fact, Ibsen was preoccupied with the North both as symbolic and geographical locations throughout his whole literary career.

It will assess whether Ibsen contributed to confirm already existing images of the North or whether he contributed to the construction of new images. The article will also explore how Ibsen used images of the North to construct meaning for contemporary audiences. One of the abiding problems in the study of American Indians is that it is plagued by stereotyping and romanticism. In the history of ideas in Europe and the United States, negative as well as positive stereotyping has been called "primitivism.

Such attitude has a notable effect on the growth of the video film Flight and abduction in witchcraft and UFO lore. The lore surrounding the mythical Witches' Sabbat and contemporary reports of UFO abductions share three main characteristics: the use of masks, the appearance of "Men in Black," and references to flight and abduction.

We review these three commonalities with particular focus on the aspect of flight and abduction. We argue that narratives of the Witches' Sabbat and UFO abductions share the same basic structure, common symbolism, and serve the same psychological needs of providing a coherent explanation for anomalous ambiguous experiences while simultaneously giving the experient a sense of freedom, release, and escape from the self.

This pattern of similarities suggests the possibility that UFO abductions are a modern version of tales of flight to the Sabbat. Political Science: Witchcraft or Craftsmanship? Standards for Good Research. Scientific debate requires a common understanding of what constitutes good research.

The purpose of this article is to establish such an understanding. The purpose of political science is to uncover, understand and explain the conformist aspect of social behavior, well aware that not all behavior Good political science ought to be grounded in two questions: What do we know, and what are we going to learn?

Research question and theory are decisive, while all discussion about methodology and design is about subjecting our prejudices and expectations to the most The Greek evil eye, African witchcraft , and Western ethnocentrism. The priest then holds the candidate upright, looks to the east and.

The San values of conflict prevention and avoidance in Platfontein. Full Text Available The aim of this article is to identify measures that can prevent violent conflict through the maintenance of traditional cultural values that guide conflict avoidance.

Moreover, the article focuses on the concepts of conflict prevention and conflict avoidance as applied by the San community of Platfontein. The causes of the inter-communal tensions between the San community members are also examined. A selected conflict situation, that of superstition and witchcraft , is assessed as factors increasing interpersonal conflict in the Platfontein community.

This investigation is made to determine if the San preventive measures have an impact in the community, so as to prevent ongoing conflicts from escalating further. Childhood trauma and the origins of paranormal belief: a constructive replication. Previous research suggests that, as a group, people who believe in the paranormal tend to have a history of traumatic events in childhood. This relationship has been incorporated into Irwin's model of the psychological origins and functions of paranormal belief.

A constructive replication of the relationship and a test of Irwin's model was undertaken in relation to a specific context, namely, a childhood spent with an alcoholic parent. Compared to 89 control participants, a sample of 32 adults who were children of alcoholics had stronger beliefs in witchcraft , superstitions , and precognition.

The results are discussed in relation to two components of Irwin's model. Allergic diseases in children: the science, the superstition and the stories. This is even more beneficial and useful when it encompasses the local cultural and traditional beliefs that significantly impact on its management. Professor Hugo Van Bever has been in clinical practice in pediatric allergy for more than 25 years, spending more than 15 years in Europe and more recently 7 years in Singapore.

With a deep appreciation of the clinical issues in childhood allergy This dissertation investigates Christian attitudes towards Greco-Roman religions in late antique Rome. The Introduction discusses the revisionist position, that these attitudes were essentially peaceful. This idealizing view is at odds with the generalizing observation of sociologists of religion,.

The evolution of witchcraft and the meaning of healing in colonial Andean society. This paper explores the ways in which traditional beliefs of Andean peoples regarding health and sickness were transformed by the process of Spanish colonization.

It also examines how the colonial context devolved new meanings and powers on native curers. The analysis of these transformations in Andean systems of meanings and role structures relating to healing depends on an examination of the European witchcraze of the 16thth centuries.

The Spanish conquest of the Inca empire in the mid's coincided with the European witch hunts; it is argued that the latter formed the cultural lens through which the Spanish evaluated native religion--the matrix through which Andean concepts of disease and health were expressed--as well as native curers. Andean religion was condemned as heresy and curers were condemned as witches. Traditional Andean cosmology was antithetical to 16th century European beliefs in the struggle between god and the devil, between loyal Christians and the Satan's followers.

Consequently, European concepts of disease and health based on the power of witches, Satan's adherents, to cause harm and cure were alien to pre-Columbian Andean thought. Ironically European concepts of Satan and the supposed powers of witches began to graft themselves onto the world view of Andean peoples.

Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. In October , the remains of 'El Negro', a Tswana man who had died years before and who, as a stuffed specimen, had been on display in Europe for over years, were flown from Spain to Botswana and given a State funeral in the capital Gaborone.

In early , as it became clear that the. Full Text Available Social work students are trained to develop and maintain a professional sense of integrity, particularly when working in environments beyond their control. Using critical reflection as an example, students are encouraged to pause and reflect during practice encounters, which entails a reassessment of the situation. The aim is to help transform taken for granted ways of thinking and doing things into best practices.

In this sense, students are provided with perspectives on theoretical frameworks and encouraged to appreciate the essence of maximizing practice through a culture of learning and reflection. Through the approach of critical reflection, students are also encouraged to understand how power functions in society, especially through ways in which an individual attempts to maintain unequal social relations.

Critical reflection therefore helps students to fill knowledge gaps on how to discover and address inequalities in practice situations. Full Text Available This paper analyzes "The Simpsons"' use of the witch to uncover how her constructionin this animated series reflects not only the current theoretical work on the witch but also the ambivalence about the role of women in modern American society.

This paper posits that the original construction of the witch, as seen in current interpretation of Early Modern pamphletsand cultural artifacts,steemed from the time period's expetations of gender. Further, "The Simpsons"' incorporation of the witch into its episodes revels that many of these same gender constraints exist in modern culture. Childhood physical abuse and differential development of paranormal belief systems.

This study compared paranormal belief systems in individuals with and without childhood physical abuse histories.

Psi, precognition, and spiritualism, which are thought to provide a sense of personal efficacy and control, were among the most strongly held beliefs in abused subjects, and were significantly higher in abused versus nonabused subjects. Superstition and extraordinary life forms, thought to have an inverse or no relation to felt control, were the least strongly held beliefs in abused subjects, and, along with religious beliefs, did not differ between the two abuse groups.

Witchcraft was unexpectedly found to be the most strongly held belief among those with abuse histories. Results suggest that by providing a sense of control, certain paranormal beliefs may offer a powerful emotional refuge to individuals who endured the stress of physical abuse in childhood.

For hundreds years, people have been travelling to places deemed as sacred to meet or to worship Divinity. However, these travels with religious motivation or pilgrimages, which might be considered as the first form of tourism Rinschede, , were carried out without the possibility to measure the economic, social and environmental impact. Religion-motivated tourism is extremely important in many parts of the world Timothy and Olsen, In Romania, religious ceremonies to celebrate Sa For the last decades, many researchers have focused on paranormal beliefs.

Beliefs in the existence of paranormal phenomena would be common and studies conducted in westernized countries have highlighted a high prevalence of individuals believing in the existence of such phenomena.

This item self-reported questionnaire, measuring beliefs in phenomena such as witchcraft or superstition , is one of the most widely used questionnaires to assess such beliefs. While studies focusing on paranormal beliefs tend to develop, there is no French self-report instrument to assess this construct. Researchers have tried to identify specific variables that might be linked to such beliefs, and some have focused on personalities of individuals who believe in the paranormal.

Schizotypy has been reported to be significantly and positively correlated with paranormal beliefs. The aim of this study was a to validate the French version of the RPBS and b to explore the relationship between Schizotypal Personality Disorder traits and paranormal beliefs.

After being recruited using the Internet and social networks e. Several adjustment indices were used to evaluate the model. As the first model did not fit the original one, others models were tested. Our findings indicated that a seven-factor solution, excluding 2 items, best described the item structure: 1 spiritualism, 2 superstition , 3 witchcraft , 4 precognition, 5 traditional religious belief, 6 psi, 7 and.

A total of participants After controlling for age, gender, education, and anxiety, the results supported the following three hypotheses. These experiences are positively related to paranormal beliefs in healthy adults but not in schizophrenic patients. Schizophrenic patients have higher scores than healthy adults on the psi and superstitious subscales of the CRPB. Women who made significant contributions in the chemical sciences prior to the 20th century do not come readily to mind.

Yet, as this book relates so engagingly, women have been influential in chemistry since the earliest period of recorded history. However, Women in Chemistry is more than a dated collection of biographical sketches of notable women scientists. The book highlights the main periods of history when it was possible for women to have some measure of success in the chemical sciences and focuses on their changing roles from alchemical times to the midth century. By glimpsing into the life and work of individuals in the context of the time in which they lived, the authors impart a credible and moving image of the restraints imposed on aspiring women scientists and the obstacles that confronted them-making the extent of their contributions all the more remarkable.

Each chapter has a theme into which are woven selected biographical sketches. Chapter 1 offers a whirlwind tour of the centuries from Babylonian times B. This short but powerful chapter invokes appreciation for the major contributions made by women in the face of enormous obstacles of prejudice, superstition witchcraft , monastic reprisals, pseudoscience alchemy , and denial of education.

The women featured include Maria Hebraea around C. By the 18th century, science had progressed and alchemy was at an end. Though enlightened scientifically, western society still considered women's intellect inferior. But, as Chapter 2 relates, the literary salons of France nurtured intellectual discussion in society women, and it was in this context that. Paranormal believers are more prone to illusory agency detection than skeptics. It has been hypothesized that illusory agency detection is at the basis of belief in supernatural agents and paranormal beliefs.

To assess whether children at risk for celiac disease should be screened systematically by comparing their baseline and follow-up characteristics to patients detected because of clinical suspicion. The groups were compared for clinical, serologic, and histologic characteristics and laboratory values. Follow-up data regarding adherence and response to gluten-free diet were compared. Subgroup analyses were made between asymptomatic and symptomatic screen-detected patients.

Of screen-detected patients, Cet appareil permet non seulement de solliciter des eprouvettes de tailles importantes par rapport a celles utilisees lors des essais classiques, mais aussi d'effectuer des essais en conditions quasi-homogenes, ce qui permet de donner acces a la loi de comportement des materiaux.

Cette etude a ete menee principalement pour comparer le comportement d'un bitume avec celui d'un mastic bitumineux dans le domaine des petites deformations. Enfin, le modele analogique 2S2P1D est utilise pour simuler le comportement viscoelastique lineaire des bitumes et des mastics bitumineux testes lors de la campagne experimentale. Etude de pratiques d'enseignement relatives a la modelisation en sciences et technologies avec des enseignants du secondaire.

Ministere de l'Education du Loisir et du Sport, a. Elle fait ainsi partie des sept demarches auxquelles eleves et enseignants sont censes recourir. Paracetamol is one of the most popular and widely used drugs for the treatment of pain and fever and provides safe and effective relief of these symptoms since decades. The mechanism of action is very complex and involves the inhibition of the peroxidase portion of the cyclooxygenase enzyme together with the modulation of the serotoninergic and cannabinoid system.

Paracetamol is a safe drug, if used in accordance with the regulations and has demonstrated a superior side effect profile to many widely used NSAIDs. For a few years, data on SPECT-imaging of dopamine transporters with the cocaine derivate [I] 1R beta-carbomethoxybeta- 4-iodophenyl -tropane [I] beta-CIT have been reported mostly in healthy subjects or animals.

This study reflects our preliminary results with SPECT-imaging of dopamine transporters using the cocaine analogue beta-CIT in patients with untreated de novo parkinsonism. In 33 patients with clinical suspicion of Parkinson disease and 5 healthy controls, SPECT-imaging of dopamine transporters was performed 1, 4, and 24 hours after injection of MBq of I-beta-CIT, which was generated by iododestannylation.

None of the patients or controls had been treated before with neuroleptical drugs or any other pharmaceuticals with known binding to the dopamine transporters. Filipin staining and 7-ketocholesterol 7-KC measurements were performed in all patients with NP-C gene mutations, where possible.

Positive filipin staining results comprised three classical and five variant biochemical phenotypes. No NPC2 mutations were detected. Plasma 7. The interaction of plane electromagnetic wave with half-infinit gyrotropic media for different directions of propagation of incident microwave radiation and various directions of gyrotropic axis are investigated.

The equations for calculation of wave's parameters exited in media and reflected from media-surface are obtained. La sp. Such observations may include indications of the chronic and withdrawal The observations may include indications of the chronic and Although there is literature explaining how female ethnographers negotiate male-dominated research settings, there is a lack of literature explaining how male ethnographers negotiate female-dominated settings.

It is, more or less, taken for granted the research settings males choose will be suitable for them. The field of early childhood…. This qualitative study examines the ramifications of police infiltration and monitoring of Muslim student and community-based organizations. Automation under suspicion --case flight AF Air France. The probes allow the pilot to control the aircraft speed was essential to the balance of the flight.

Opinions of experts who claim that "the design of the plane would have exercised a not inconsiderable role in the occurrence of a disaster. A lawsuit in Toulouse and in Brazil aims to recognition of the liability of Air France and Airbus not insignificant role in the design and operation of the aircraft in the event of catastrophe. Opinions are taken from senior pilots that no commercial aviation training for certain situations abnormal flight that, if realized, could have influenced the pilots of the AF to remove the plane's fatal dive show what experiments performed in simulators for military pilots, who are permanently subject to critical flight situations.

Recognition of human rights on the basis of sexual orientation, gender identity and intersex status by the United Nations has led to the development of new policies concerning homophobia and transphobia in educational contexts. This paper examines new Australian education policies impacting gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender, intersex and queer….

Raising suspicions with the Food and Drug Administration: detecting misconduct. A comprehensive program of on-site inspections and data verification, the BIMO program routinely performs random inspections to verify studies submitted to the FDA to support a marketing application. On occasion the FDA will conduct a directed inspection of a specific site or study to look for problems that may have previously been identified.

The inspection of a clinical study sometimes uncovers evidence of research fraud or misconduct and it must be decided how to deal with the investigator and the suspect data. The prevention of [or] decreasing the incidence of fraud and misconduct through monitoring by the sponsor is one way to manage compliance issues and can help prevent misconduct. A training program is another way to manage compliance issues in clinical research.

While training does not guarantee quality, it does help to ensure that all individuals involved understand the rules and the consequences of research misconduct. Diagnosis, epidemiology, modes of transmission, differential diagnosis, relationship between AGW and cancer are descript.

Also, it remarks the presence of AGW as indicator of child sexual abuse. Finally, it includes suggestions for the management of patients and their families by the paediatrician. This article addresses what, if any, psychotherapeutic interventions should be provided to meet the emotional and clinical needs of alleged child victims of sexual abuse while they await judicial determinations from the family, dependency, or criminal courts.

The discussion emphasizes that to minimize iatrogenic outcomes, professionals involved in…. After the initial moves, in each encounter, the. Researchers have recently explored the We have also successfully localized brain regions such as.

Intense nocturnal itching should raise suspicion of scabies. Scabies is caused by infestation with a parasitic mite Sarcoptes scabiei var hominis. The itch and rash appear to be largely the result of a delayed type IV allergic reaction to the mite, its eggs and excreta. Scabies is spread by a mite transferring to the skin surface of an unaffected person, usually by skin to skin contact with an infested person, but occasionally via contaminated bed linen, clothes or towels.

In crusted scabies, mites are also dispersed within shed scales, enabling the condition to be contracted from contaminated surfaces. Patients with classical scabies usually present with an itchy non-specific rash. Often, the history alone can be virtually diagnostic. An intense itch, affecting all body regions except the head, typically worse at night, appearing to be out of proportion to the physical evidence, with a close contact also itching, should prompt serious consideration of scabies.

The generalised hypersensitivity rash consists of erythematous macules and papules with excoriation. Close inspection will reveal burrows usually up to 1 cm in length. The pathognomic sign of scabies is the presence of burrows. The crusted variant of scabies may not be itchy.

It is characterised by areas of dry, scaly, hyperkeratotic and crusted skin, particularly on the extremities. Referral to secondary care should be considered in the following cases: diagnostic doubt; patient under two months of age; lack of response to two ourses of different insecticides; crusted scabies; or history suggests a isk of sexually transmitted infection. Outbreaks of scabies in institutions should be referred to the local health protection services.

Mammalian milk allergy: clinical suspicion , cross-reactivities and diagnosis. This review examines recent studies on the diagnosis of cow's milk allergy as well as on the allergenicity of milk from other mammalian species. Resolution of symptoms during strict milk avoidance and their re-appearance during the double-blind, placebo-controlled milk challenge remains the gold standard for the diagnosis of cow's milk allergy.

There are increasing data in various populations on cut-off points based on positive predictive values for skin prick test and milk-specific IgE measurements to aid in the diagnosis of cow's milk allergy and to decrease the number of unnecessary food challenges. For non-IgE-mediated manifestations, noninvasive diagnostic tests are still largely lacking. The significant homology between milk from cow, sheep and goat results in clinical cross-reactivity.

However, mare's or donkey's milk may be tolerated by some individuals. Data have been accumulating on the utility of diagnostic tools for mostly IgE-mediated milk allergy and allergenicity of milk from other mammalian species, although further studies are sought. L'infection au VIH est devenue aujourd'hui une maladie chronique.

Factors influencing survival among Kenyan children diagnosed with endemic Burkitt lymphom between and a historical cohort study. Discovering how to improve survival and establishing clinical reference points for children diagnosed with endemic Burkitt lymphoma eBL in resource-constrained settings has recaptured international attention.

Using multivariate analyses, we evaluated children with eBL in Kenya for age, gender, tumor stage, nutritional status, hemoglobin, lactate dehydrogenase LDH , Epstein-Barr virus EBV and Plasmodium falciparum prior to induction of chemotherapy cyclophosphamide, vincristine, methotrexate, and doxorubicin to identify predictive and prognostic biomarkers of survival.

Anemic children with malaria were 3. EBV load did not differ by tumor stage nor was it associated with survival. System-level factors can also contribute to poor outcomes.

This study codifies risk factors associated with poor outcomes for eBL patients in Africa and provides a benchmark by which to assess improvements in survival for new chemotherapeutic approaches. Entrevue avec le Dr Charley Zeanah. Ain-Souya, A. MWthodes Douze sujets, 9 hommes et 3 femmes, dg6s de 23 it 41 ans, se Le premier essai 6tait toujours r6alis6 avec la tete droite. Ensuite, une nouvelle orientation de.

Type II ferroelectric ceramics are used in multilayers capacitors with high volume capacitance. Comparaison avec le calcul en 2D. In this paper, the finite element method is applied for the computation of the magnetostatic field in the windings of a shell-form reactor. The results are compared to those obtained in 2D. These calculation results are also compared to some test results. Expert evidence in cases with suspicion of medical mistake - expectations, possibilities, threats…].

Problems of medical mistake and therapeutic failure are inextricably linked with realization of medical services.

In recent years, mostly by the media and increasing demanding attitude, a rapid increase of initiated cases opened by judicial body in conjunction with medical mistake made by medical staff is observed. Making medico-legal opinions is not easy task and often face many difficulties. These consist of lacks in medical documentation, time rigor, formal tightening and need to create team that consist of both forensic medicine specialist and clinicians, who together shall write complex medico-legal opinion.

This article touches the essence of the opinion-making problem in the aspect of medical mistake. It shows specifics of the role of forensic medicine specialist, his challenges and difficulties in creating opinions. The article confronts real possibilities of court experts with expectations of judicial body, outlining new challenges and dangers which court experts have to face.

Olive ingestion causing a false suspicion of relapsed neuroblastoma: A case of "oliveblastoma? Measurement of the urine catecholamine metabolites homovanillic acid HVA and vanillylmandelic acid VMA are the standard method for detecting disease recurrence in neuroblastoma.

We present a case of abnormal concentrations of catecholamine metabolites that prompted investigations for relapsed neuroblastoma. However, further study revealed that the abnormal biochemistry was likely due to ingestion of olives. Olive ingestion should be considered when interpreting urine HVA and VMA results, and excluded if concentrations are unexpectedly abnormal.

The violence of any literacy acquisition in the contact zone between the powered, the disempowered, and the empowered is never clearcut. But, nevertheless, calls to theory literacy from the late 70s and early 80s have been answered with a rush.

Michael Berube writes that "graduate school in English seems to have a very bad effect on people…. Management of animal botulism outbreaks: from clinical suspicion to practical countermeasures to prevent or minimize outbreaks.

Botulism is a severe neuroparalytic disease that affects humans, all warm-blooded animals, and some fishes. The disease is caused by exposure to toxins produced by Clostridium botulinum and other botulinum toxin-producing clostridia. Botulism in animals represents a severe environmental and economic concern because of its high mortality rate. Moreover, meat or other products from affected animals entering the food chain may result in a public health problem. To this end, early diagnosis is crucial to define and apply appropriate veterinary public health measures.

Clinical diagnosis is based on clinical findings eliminating other causes of neuromuscular disorders and on the absence of internal lesions observed during postmortem examination. Since clinical signs alone are often insufficient to make a definitive diagnosis, laboratory confirmation is required. Botulinum antitoxin administration and supportive therapies are used to treat sick animals. Once the diagnosis has been made, euthanasia is frequently advisable.

Vaccine administration is subject to health authorities' permission, and it is restricted to a small number of animal species. Several measures can be adopted to prevent or minimize outbreaks.

In this article we outline all phases of management of animal botulism outbreaks occurring in wet wild birds, poultry, cattle, horses, and fur farm animals.

High resolution transbulbar sonography in children with suspicion of increased intracranial pressure. To evaluate the accuracy of high resolution transbulbar sonography for the estimation of intracranial pressure ICP in children.

In children and adolescents with acute neurologic symptoms of various origin, transbulbar sonography was performed. Besides measurement of the optic nerve sheath diameter ONSD , the ultrastructure of the subarachnoid space of the optic nerve sheath was evaluated.

The results of transbulbar sonography were correlated with clinical data based on cross-sectional imaging, ICP measurement, and ophthalmologic examination.

Eighty-one patients age In 25 children, cross-sectional imaging and ICP measurement revealed increased intracranial pressure. The mean ONSD was 6. In 56 children without evidence of increased intracranial pressure, the mean ONSD was 5. During the 20th century, silver nitrate SN eye drops instillation to newborns had been the best prophylaxis against ophthalmia neonatorum ON caused by Neisseria gonorrheae, the most frequent cause of ocular infections leading to blindness.

At present, this treatment has been questioned because there is a growing prevalence of other pathogens such as Chlamydia trachomatis, and SN is associated with chemical conjunctivitis ChC. In addition, SN could present some conservation problems in tropical climates. Among other alternative drugs, 2. During a periodical signal searching process, the SF found a cluster of 33 ChC reports from one of the network hospitals.

The problem was discussed with the remaining participant hospitals and this signal was used as a way to strengthen the network. Thirteen months later, ChC reports were received from six hospitals. Thus, this well-known side-effect in the literature was highlighted as a 'real' problem in Brazil, and some participant hospitals began a discussion period together with the delivery and newborn care professionals in order to switch SN by povidone-iodine.

This is an example of both, how a simple pharmacovigilance exercise could improve the implication of health professionals with their own therapeutic problems and how a pharmacovigilance network could be strengthened. What are the prospects for joining religious education and human rights education?

The prevalence of prostate cancer is considered high in many countries, and screening tests are very important in order to detect prostate cancer in its early stages; however false positivity with these screening tests means that a lot of patients undergo unnecessary biopsy, which is an invasive procedure, for the confirmatory test.

The purpose of this study was to estimate the frequency of unnecessary biopsy cases in patients referred for prostate biopsy in one of the most important and overload cancer centers in Syria. Retrospective data for a period of four years between January and December were collected in Al- Bayrouni University Medical hospital in Damascus, Syria.

The patients from whom data were collected were referred to our histopathological department because of elevated prostate specific antigen PSA serum or an abnormal digital rectal examination DRE. All patients underwent prostatic TRUS-guided biopsies. Diagnosis of prostate cancer PCa or benign prostatic hyperplasia BPH was based on histopathological examination and prostate cancers cases were graded and scored according to the Gleason score system.

Of the total we found patients diagnosed with PCa Our study shows that a high percentage of patients are undergoing unnecessary biopsy, which suggests that the performed screening tests had a high level of false positive and may need re-evaluation.

Upon receipt of rebuttal arguments, or 30 days after notification Oral health in children investigated by Social services on suspicion of child abuse and neglect.

Child abuse and neglect CAN are likely to have negative consequences on health; however, for oral health, studies on associated outcomes are sparse. The purpose of this study was to assess oral health and oral health behaviors in relation to suspected CAN among children being investigated by the Swedish Social Services.

Till far into the twentieth century two nodal points in the study of witchcraft stood out: freee work by historians on witch trials in early modern Europe, and anthropologists' studies of its role in local tensions in Africa and Melanesia. The differences between the two settings were so glaring that. Witchcraftgenealogy, Foucault. This paper is a genealogical reflection on both the historiography of European witchcraft and the dynamics of witchcraft trials. I argue that traditional scholarly assumptions about the 'unsophisticated' nature of early modern European mentalities result in inadequate representations joana vasconcelos i want to break free 10 f?vrier brea joana vasconcelos i want to break free 10 f?vrier and of the social contexts and processes of the command and conquer red alert mac free download. Genealogy, by contrast, problematizes fundamental notions such as reason, order, power and progress in ways that not only provide a different range of effective tools for the analysis of belief in joana vasconcelos i want to break free 10 f?vrierbut also underline its crucial significance for social theory. In the final section, an analysis of a typical trial is undertaken employing key genealogical insights into confession, torture, truth, governmentality, power, pleasure and pain. Radioactivity - superstition and science. Fairy-tales, myths, superstition - how was it fair, when we could still be afraid for witches and goblins. Where demons floated and nicks danced, the dry science has spreaded and disenchanted the life. If there would not be things like radioactivity, against which can be struggled in the collective well being. Then dream pet link free online game is bad, clear, or good, it heals sicks, also clear. But what is now correct? 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