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In this short article, the author relates, by means of a case report, a type of conflict which occurs as a result of the paradoxes derived from the current managerial model practiced in the Andalucian public hospitals. The limitations and the incompetence of a bureaucracy, rigid in compliance with its functions, and which is incapable of attending to the demands that belong to the hard core of the organization, place the supposed most important and most immediate objectives of an efficient managerial system in "danger".
The basic hypothesis lies in the need to bear in mind, at the time of designing a hospital's organizational system, the "structures of the invisible interests", with their corresponding paradoxes and perversions, of each of the distinct component parts of this system. And how these invisible bureaucratic interests can hinder and pervert managerial and organizational designs which appear to be ideal and optimal in their objectives and principles.
It has been established that the best surfactant formulations for oil recovery are those which give ultra low interfacial tensions when contacted with the oil and which at the same time minimize the amount of amphiphilic compounds needed to form stable microemulsions. The purpose of this study is to determine the important variables which govern the formation of stable microemulsions, to identify their relative importance and to.
The impact of the oil crisis associated with the Persian Gulf conflict on the United States. This paper analyzes the effects of the Persian Gulf conflict on the level of economic activity, employment and inflation in the United States. Impacts on other countries are not examined in this study. Many of the impacts are difficult to quantify objectively.
One factor that can be subjected to analysis is the increase in US government expenditures associated with Operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm.
The analytical results of the investigation suggest that the method of financing the increase does make a difference in how the US economy is affected. In two of the three cases considered i. In the third case i. Moreover, the magnitudes of the changes are directly proportional to the size of the expenditure increase.
Full Text Available We present Molecular Dynamics MD simulations of the imbibition process in nanopores in case of two different mechanisms of the wettability modification. We compare the imbibition of an aqueous surfactant solution into an oil -wet pore driven by surfactant adsorption onto the oil -wet rock surface coating mechanism and the imbibition of an aqueous surfactants solution driven by surfactants removing the contaminant molecules from the originally water-wet surface cleaning mechanism.
Our results show qualitative difference in the imbibition dynamics in these two cases and indicate that MD simulation is a useful tool to investigate details of the imbibition mechanisms at the pore scale with direct implications for Enhanced Oil Recovery EOR operations.
Conflict about conflict. Purpose — There are a number of ongoing debates in the organizational literature about conflict in groups and teams. We investigate two " conflicts about conflict " i. The DSC technique Differential Scanning Calorimetry was applied to the study of water-in-crude oil emulsions, which naturally form after an oil spill. It is therefore important to assess their stability in order to optimize their treatments.
A great variety of techniques are available for. There already exist well defined classes of applications, together with appropriate Neural Networks architectures. Detailed theoretical results allow to monitor and evaluate the results obtained by Neural Networks. Sophisticated applications will certainly require the use of multi-modular architectures. Les applications complexes demanderont certainement la mise en oeuvre d'architectures multi-modulaires. Full Text Available Foreign direct investment is new phenomenon to Iraq, a post conflict country with abundance of natural resources.
With dominant state-controlled public sector, attracting foreign investment is an added challenge to an economy devastated by years of wars. Data was collected from interviews with business and government subject matter experts, and a review of publically available documents. Lack of security, political instability, corruption, and inadequate government policies towards foreign direct investment as symptoms found and typically shared by other post- conflict countries.
The persistence of violence was not seen as a deterrent; however, foreign direct investment activity in the energy sector was virtually limited to the semi-autonomous region of Kurdistan. Investments were either wholly-owned or joint-venture enterprises. Implications to other post conflict countries, using Kuwait and Nigeria as illustrative examples, are presented and recommendations made. Ben Franklin stilled the waves an informal history of pouring oil on water with reflections on the ups and downs of scientific life in general.
Benjamin Franklin, the 18th-century American statesman and scientist, watched the calming effect of a drop of oil on the waves and ripples of a London pond, and began to investigate exactly what was happening to cause this strange phenomenon. Following Franklin's lead, a motley crowd of scientists over the next two centuries and more chose to investigate the nature of atoms and molecules through the interaction of fluid membranes.
Building on Franklin's originalexperiments, their work has culminated in the discovery of the structure of cell membranes, research that continues to bear fruit today.
Ben Franklin Stilled the Waves is far more than the story of oil on water; it is a voyage into the very nature of science and its place in our history. This time it's different. An inevitable decline in world petroleum production will keep oil product prices high, causing military conflicts and shifting wealth and power from democracies to authoritarian regimes.
There is virtual agreement among geologists that world production of conventional oil will peak at some point in the future. Oil , after all, is a finite resource, while demand will only grow over time.
Geologists disagree, however, exactly when the peak will occur. Using data from the International Energy Agency, the US Department of Energy, the Association for the Study of Peak Oil and Gas, and petroleum industry sources, we argue that conventional oil production will reach a worldwide maximum within the next years, earlier than generally estimated, thus leaving a very short time frame within which to plan for conversion to alternative sources of energy.
Unless planning is initiated immediately, the United States and other Western democracies will see their positions in the global economy undercut as military conflicts over limited energy resources increase, and wealth and power are shifted to authoritarian regimes in Russia, Venezuela, Africa and the Middle East. Mineral, shale, and like oils are treated successively with sulfuric acid, milk of lime, and a mixture of calcium oxide, sodium chloride, and water, and finally a solution of naphthalene in toluene is added.
The product is suitable for lighting, and for use as a motor fuel; for the latter purpose, it is mixed with a light spirit. Conflict Management. Discusses general issues involved in conflict management and provides more specific examples of conflict management in libraries. Causes of conflict are considered, including organizational structure, departmentalization, performance appraisal, poor communication, and technological change; and methods of dealing with conflict are described,….
Crude petroleum having a density of to is purified with sulfuric acid, decanted, mixed with benzine or petrol, and again treated with sulfuric acid and decanted. The remaining acid and coloring-matter are removed by washing with water, or treating with oxalic acid, zinc carbonate, lead carbonate, calcium carbonate, or oxide of zinc.
The product is used as a fuel for internal-combustion engines. Specifications No. According to the Provisional Specification, the process is applicable to shale or schist oil. Oil pollution. Oil enters the marine environment when it is discharged, or has escaped, during transport, drilling, shipping, accidents, dumping and offshore operations.
This book serves as a reference both on the various complex international operational and legal matters of oil pollution using examples such as the Exxon Valdez, the Braer and Lord Donaldson's report. The chapters include the development of international rules on the marine environment, the prevention of marine pollution from shipping activities, liability for oil pollution damage, the conflict of the Oil Pollution Act and the protocols and finally the cooperation and response to pollution incidents.
It is advisable to tackle conflicts as part of organizational life. It is necessary to be aware thatan employee brings with itself at different work values, and strategies of the individual workingunder these conditions conflict opportunities are numerous. Generally speaking. In the last ten years, miscible gas flooding has taken great strides owing to the development of carbon dioxide, especially in the United States.
But other non-hydrocarbon gases are likely to be used for Enhanced Oil Recovery. For example, nitrogen or flue gases appear as a possible replacement solution. With this outlook, a first analysis has been realised, limited to an economic study of using nitrogen for onshore.
Offre pour nos membres. CERN Multimedia. Parking gratuit. Conflict resolution and peace building: the gender question in the Conflict has become a recognizable feature in the oil rich region.
The activities of the multinational Conflict : Organizational. This article examines four contemporary treatments of the problem of organizational conflict : social psychological, anthropological, neo-Darwinian, and neo-Machiavellian. Social psychological treatments of organizational conflict focus on the dyadic relationship between individual disputants In contrast, anthropological treatments take a more socially and historically embedded approach to organizational conflict , focusing on how organizational actors establish negotiated orders of understanding.
In a break with the social psychological and anthropological approaches, neo-Darwinians explain Informatique: tous pour un Parenting Conflicts. Sidgwick believed that, when impartial reasons conflict with self-interested reasons, there are no truths about their relative strength.
There are such truths, I claim, but these truths are imprecise. Many self-interested reasons are decisively outweighed by conflicting impar-tial moral reasons.
But we often have sufficient self-interested reasons to do what would make things go worse, and we sometimes have sufficient self-interested reasons to act wrongly. If we reject Act Consequentialism, Emotional Dynamics in Conflict and Conflict Transformation. Berlin: Berghof Foundation. Conflict and Conflict Transformation. After listening to the opinions of the experts, cause to result in the problem was analyzed and solving way was suggested.
Conflicts about Conflict of Interest. Pharmaceutical representatives use detailing, gift giving, and the donation of free samples as a means to gain access to and influence over physicians. In biomedical ethics, there has been an ongoing debate as to whether these practices constitute an unethical conflict of interest COI on the part of the physician. Underlying this debate are the following antecedent questions: 1 what counts as a conflict of interest, 2 when are such conflicts unethical, and 3 how should the ethical physician respond to conflicts?
This article distinguishes between two perspectives that have been developed on these issues: a reliable performance model PM and a trustworthiness model TM. PM advocates argue that a conflict of interest can only be established by demonstrating that a particular influence is undermining the reliability of the physician's judgment, and this requires empirical evidence of negative patient outcomes. TM advocates, on the other hand, argue that because of the fiduciary nature of the patient-physician relationship, physicians have an obligation to develop and be worthy of patient trust.
A COI, on this view, is a condition that undermines the warrant for patients to judge a physician as trustworthy. Although there is much that is right in the PM, it is argued that the TM does a better job of responsibly addressing the unique vulnerabilities of the patient.
The TM is then applied to the practices of detailing, gift giving, and sample donation. It is concluded that these practices constitute an unethical conflict of interest. University of Texas Press, Duke University Press, University of Georgia Press, Afghan hydrocarbons: a source for development or for conflict? A risk assessment of Norwegian involvement in development of the Afghan oil and gas industry.
Norad has been engaged in capacity building and provision of technical support to the Afghan Ministry of Mines since A part of this engagement relates to the development of the Afghan Hydrocarbons Law, and commercialization of gas and oil reserves through an international bidding process.
The Afghan oil and gas industry has been in production since the mid s, but is in need of major investments. Afghans interviewed are of the opinion that oil and gas reserves are national property, to be used for the benefit of all Afghans.
The review has identified a range of risks and challenges to the further process, and Norad is advised to consider: To await further engagement on policy matters until there is further clarity as to how the Government of Afghanistan aims to develop and utilize these resources. Transparency, consultation and conflict : Assessing the micro-level risks surrounding the drive to develop Peru's Amazonian oil and gas resources.
In the case of Peru, this is especially relevant to the vast areas of ecologically sensitive and previously under-developed Amazonia that are now under concession to oil and gas companies. Low levels of industry transparency combined with a lack of uniform free, prior and informed consent are exacerbating A natural resource: what happens when oil interests conflict with the needs of a northern caribou herd and the people who depend on it? Although the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act ANILCA established a wildlife refuge to protect the calving grounds of the Porcupine caribou, striking oil in Prudhoe Bay led to the construction of a pipeline, which even in decline delivers one million barrels of oil a day to the Port of Valdez.
Given the money generated by the oil industry, it is not surprising that most Alaska legislators favour extraction of the nature reserve's petroleum resources. So far, legislation by the President, supported by a group of senators, managed to keep the drilling rigs out of the nursery of the Porcupine caribou. In Canada, too, aboriginal leaders and environmentalist groups have worked hard to ensure that the federal government continues to oppose the leasing of the coastal plain to developers.
Development would negatively affect the Porcupine caribou herd, the traditional way of life of aboriginal communities, and the ecological integrity of Ivvavik National Park.
Although the fate of the calving ground will ultimately be decided in Washington, the health of the Porcupine caribou herd is a true cross-border issue. So far, the two governments have managed to stave off development and to assert that such a relatively pristine and intact biosphere should remain intact. However, the pressure by the oil industry giants is relentless, and requires constant vigilance. Mobile unit for treatment of oil emulsions taladrines ; Unidad movil de tratamiento de taladrinas.
The environmental problems of water in oil emulsions taladrines , produced because of an uncontrolled pouring in the sewage system, is the problem caused for the sewage sludge water treatment plants because they have oils , emulgents and heavy metals.
The conflicts and dialogues among techno-developmental, ecological, and indigenous paradigms in a globalized modernity: A case study of the U'wa people's resistance against oil development in Colombia.
The literature regarding indigenous eco-politics often provides only a partial explanation about interactions among indigenous peoples, environmental NGOs, and players of resource extraction activities. The dissertation argues that previous studies often fossilize indigenous people in time and space by treating them and their worldviews as static.
Against this background, the dissertation draws on paradigm analysis and demonstrates how this approach can help tease out the dynamism and complexity inherent to the interactions between paradigm actors, thus helping us reanalyze indigenous peoples and their paradigms as dynamic and evolving venues for creative possibilities.
Extensive literature review and field observation are utilized to examine the case study of interactions among the U'wa, environmental NGOs, Occidental Petroleum, Ecopetrol, and the Colombian government.
The case study reveals that oil development activities have heralded sharp conflicts among various paradigm actors. It shows how such conflicts and ensuing dialogues among paradigm actors have led to paradigm changes over time and across scales of organization. We find that the U'wa indigenous paradigm poses a legal, political, and cultural challenge to the techno-developmental paradigm of oil development.
We find further that paradigm conflicts are both opportunities and challenges for the U'wa to engage with the modern legal system of Colombia. The case study also reveals that complementarities between paradigms are useful starting points for coalitions between the U'wa and environmental NGOs. The ability to cross scales of socio-political organization enabled by modern communication technologies has helped the U'wa and environmental NGOs to successfully challenge the dominant paradigm and its resource extraction activities.
However, it also shows that additional political conditions are necessary for successful coalitions between two actors. The case study demonstrates that the U. Land contention as an obstacle to peace : the effect of multinational corporations and the palm oil industry on the Colombian conflict. In the Colombian government and the FARC guerrilla commenced peace talks for the first time in many years.
This thesis looks at the Colombian land struggle from its earliest stages to understand the roots of the issue. Then this thesis links these issues with contemporary land contention and the invasion by multinational corporations and the African oil palm industry. Also, in the light of the current peace process, this thesis takes a look at how such foreign investment i Intensification of transferring the Kazakhstan high-congealed oil : challenges and advances.
Maimakov, Tayhan P. It were investigated the rheohgica! It has shown that additive improves pour point and rheohgica; properties of crude oil mixture Kumkol-Akshabidak, inhibits wax deposition and can provide safe conditions of crude oil mixture transportation through pipeline at the cold season of year.
Keywords: oil , temperature of fluidity loss, rheology, viscosity, oligomer depressor dopants. Mutable Conflicts. The ethnography discloses that the Palestinian-Israeli conflict is not a chronological Celebritizing Conflict. From serving as United Nations ambassadors to appearing as spokespersons for major NGO campaigns, global celebrities have become increasingly important in international development assistance. Flexibility conflict? The chapter deals with the presupposed conflict of interests between employers and employees resulting from a decoupling of operating hours and working times.
It starts from the notion that both long operating hours and flexibility are relative concepts. As there is some discretion, the ultimate. Conceptions of Conflict in Organizational Conflict Research.
In doing so, we first apply a genealogical approach to study conceptions of conflict , and we find that three distinct and essentially contested conceptions frame studies of conflict at work.
Second, we employ two empirical examples of conflict to illustrate how organizational conflict research can benefit Diverse and often unacknowledged assumptions underlie organizational conflict research. In this essay, we identify distinct ways of conceptualizing conflict in the theoretical domain of organizational conflict with the aim of setting a new critical agenda for reflexivity in conflict research Uuest heliplaadist "Dvorak.
Concerto pour violoncelle; Schumann: Concerto pour violoncelle. Conflicts , crisis, youths restiveness, hostage taking, kidnapping are recent phenomena that appear synonymous with the Niger Delta, the oil rich region of the Nigerian Nation-State. This region serves as the economic nerve center of the federation. Since the discovery and the production of oil in commercial quantities in The use of satellite radar to improve the surveillance of oil pollution over large areas; L'utilisation de satellites pour ameliorer la surveillance des pollutions par hydrocarbures sur des zones etendues.
Quite recently, on November 13, the accident of the tanker Prestige loaded with 77 T of heavy fuel oil Fuel no. The purpose of this paper is to compare satellite derived observations with the other available information concerning the actual extension of the pollution especially during the first days, namely 17 and 18 of November. In addition, the problem of detecting and monitoring ship illegal discharges over large areas, such as the protected ecological zone ZPE in the Mediterranean sea, on a routine basis together with the ongoing aerial surveillance is commented and some suggestion are discussed.
When It Rains, It Pours. Out came the sun and dried up all the rain, and the itsy, bitsy spider went up the spout again. The author begins by telling a…. A two wave cross-lagged study of work-role conflict , work-family conflict and emotional exhaustion. By using a two-wave panel design, the present study aimed to study causal, reversed, and reciprocal relations among work-role conflict , work-family conflict , and emotional exhaustion.
The Conservation of Resources theory was applied as a theoretical framework. The results demonstrated positive cross-lagged effects of work-role conflict and work-family conflict on emotional exhaustion.
In addition, emotional exhaustion predicted work-family conflict over time, and work-family conflict predicted work-role conflict over time, indicating the presence of reciprocal effects. The current study adds new knowledge to the positioning of work-family conflict in relation to perceived conflict in the workplace and emotional exhaustion.
Full Text Available Use of additives to improve the efficiency of thermal heavy oil and bitumen recovery processes has been studied extensively over the decades. Two common types of additives used in thermal applications, mainly steam assisted recovery, are solvents and surfactants. Commercial use of solvents has setbacks due to their high costs and retrieval difficulties.
Cost and stability of the surfactants under reservoir operating temperature and pressure are the major concerns. Advantages of using bioDiesel as a surfactant additive are that bioDiesel is chemically stable under the operating pressure and temperature of the reservoir, it causes no harm on bitumen fuel quality and on release water chemistry and its use is economically feasible.
We conducted a series of steam assisted bitumen recovery experiments to clarify the additional recovery potential and efficiency improvement capacity of bioDiesel. High pressure steam at 1.
The porous media used was a normal grade oil sands ore obtained from a surface mine operation in Northern Alberta, Canada. Oil sands ore was packed in a basket and placed in a high pressure cell. In another series of tests, tall oil fatty acids methyl ester was injected into a high pressure steam line at a 8.
Because of the solubility of bioDiesel in bitumen, the effect of bioDiesel on bitumen recovery could not be accurately concluded. Vapor pressure measurements performed on canola oil and tall oil derived bioDiesel samples suggest that saturation. These methods are chemical, spectroscopic infrared, ultraviolet and chromatographic high-resolution gas chromatography with flame ionization detection, flame photometry and electron capture.
Measurements were made of a great variety of products capable of polluting the Spanish Mediterranean coast, including. This article begins by recalling a statement made.
Exploration and production. Extra-heavy oils and bitumen. Reserves for the future; Exploration et production. Bruts extra-lourds et bitumes. Des reserves pour demain. How can ever-expanding needs be met without jeopardizing reserve life? The answers can be summed up in a single word: the innovation.
In this framework the Group Total developed their research and development activities, which are endowed with a annual budget of more than million dollars. Tools from seismic imaging to thermodynamic modeling of fluids and flows in any type of reservoir can be used in combination in order to steadily reduce uncertainties and control risks.
These tools will help make technologically and economically feasible to produce new resources such extra-heavy crudes, very acid gases, deeply-buried reservoirs or oil and gas reserves situated in ultra deep waters. Varieties of Organizational Conflict. The viewpoints and findings of the seven empirical studies of organizational conflict contained in this issue are compared and contrasted. A distinction is made between conflict within a stable organization structure and conflict aimed at changing the organization structure.
Healthy Conflict Management. Without healthy conflict management skills, conflict can often escalate or intensify over time.
This fact sheet gives tips on utilizing key negotiation skills to help individuals effectively address and cope with conflict and potentially build stronger relationships with others. The operational commander and his staff must understand the nature of conflict termination and the post- conflict activities so that they will be able to effectively translate the desired end state The reasons for conflict and conflict management.
This study has been conducted in order to investigate the nature, types, reasons and parties of conflict , and thus to contribute to the conflict management. After defining the concept of conflict as "a struggle in the form of a limited competition" or "disagreement or discord among the parties" , this article has mentioned the fact that conflict is unavoidable and also if managed properly, it can bring to the organization some functional advantage.
In this respect, we conducted a question Full Text Available Oil called by some black gold has not always been as coveted and used, but only in the last hundred years has established itself as a highly sought after as an indispensable proper functioning of modern economic activity that an important factor in international politics.
International oil regime has changed in the last decades. In , oil regime was a private oligopol which had links with governments main consuming countries. By then the price of a barrel of oil was two U. Meanwhile the world region with the largest oil exports were more strongly expressed nationalism and decolonization. Result, it was so in the late 60s in the region occur independent states.
Thus since there have been changes in the international regime governing oil field, namely producing countries were fixed production rate and price. After this time the oil weapon has become increasingly important in the management of international relations. Oil influenced the great powers to Middle East conflicts that occurred in the last century, but their attitude about the emergence of new sources of oil outside OPEC.
In the late 90's, Russia has become a major supplier of oil to the West. Gas and oil towards Europe: infrastructures outlook. European governance and energy geopolitics - Tome 4; Gaz et petrole vers l'Europe: perspectives pour les infrastructures.
Gouvernance europeenne et geopolitique de l'energie - Tome 4. In a context of strong energy dependence, the safety of supplies and the reliability of infrastructures remain of prime importance. The Europe of 27 is looking for the proper balance between excessive dependence and beneficial interdependence.
A real competitive bidding about the potential paths of the Russian and CIS gas towards western Europe is taking place. However, a given energy infrastructure can change the economic and cultural relations and the prices as well. Interpreting the energy diplomacy between political and economical stakes has become a hard task. The underlying logic of the impressive number of projects in progress is extremely complex as many projects are in competition and linked with each others like the BTC - Bakou-Tbilissi-Ceyhan, the Transcaspian and the South Stream.
This study aims at presenting a comprehensive overview of the existing and planned projects with the help of a table which includes the oil and gas pipelines and the methane gas terminals. It includes the layout and the potential flow rate of these infrastructures, their present day use and financial conditions of transport, the projects in progress or planned, their cost, financing and possible date of commissioning.
Hybrid mesh generation for the new generation of oil reservoir simulators: 3D extension; Generation de maillage hybride pour les simulateurs de reservoir petrolier de nouvelle generation: extension 3D.
During the exploitation of an oil reservoir, it is important to predict the recovery of hydrocarbons and to optimize its production. A better comprehension of the physical phenomena requires to simulate 3D multiphase flows in increasingly complex geological structures.
In this thesis, we are interested in this spatial discretization and we propose to extend in 3D the 2D hybrid model proposed by IFP in that allows to take directly into account in the geometry the radial characteristics of the flows. In these hybrid meshes, the wells and their drainage areas are described by structured radial circular meshes and the reservoirs are represented by structured meshes that can be a non uniform Cartesian grid or a Corner Point Geometry grids.
In order to generate a global conforming mesh, unstructured transition meshes based on power diagrams and satisfying finite volume properties are used to connect the structured meshes together. Two methods have been implemented to generate these transition meshes: the first one is based on a Delaunay triangulation, the other one uses a frontal approach.
Finally, some criteria are introduced to measure the quality of the transition meshes and optimization procedures are proposed to increase this quality under finite volume properties constraints. Political Identity and Conflict in Central Angola, The protracted civil war, which ravaged the country between and , was mainly financed by and through those involved in the wholesale extraction of oil and diamonds.
The conflict began as a struggle for independence and national liberation from Portuguese colonial rule. Manufacturing of environment friendly biolubricants from vegetable oils.
Full Text Available Environment friendly products such as fuels and lubricants are among the candidates which are studied in several countries including Egypt. The purpose of this work was to utilize commercially available palm oil and Jatropha oil for the production of biolubricants, through two stages of Transesterification. The first stage is the process of using methanol in the presence of potassium hydroxide to produce biodiesel. The second stage is the reaction of biodiesel with trimethylolpropane using sodium methoxide as catalyst to yield palm or Jatropha oil base trimethylolpropane esters biolubricants.
Palm oil based trimethylolpropane esters with yield of Under similar reaction conditions, Jatropha oil based trimethylolpropane esters with a yield of Such processes are 'sine qua non' to pre- conflict and post- conflict prevention. Behaviour of a new material for the oil well cementing. Relations between particle structure and rheological properties; Comportement d'un nouveau materiau pour la cimentation de puits de petrole.
Relations entre la structure particulaire et les proprietes rheologiques. This work focuses on the control and the characterization of the rheological behaviour of Ultra High Performances Concretes UHPC for oil well during the dormant period, in the first moments following malaxation.
Cement, sand, silica fume, water and a super-plasticizer were principally used in this study. We sought to control their rheological behaviour with simple macroscopic data, such as dry compactness and diameters of the particles.
Viscosity and yield stress measurements were determined with controlled stress or controlled rotational speed viscosimeters, by using parallel plates, concentric cylinders, or a vane. We highlight the experimental difficulties generated by the characterization of such mixtures and describe the precautions to take in order to carry out significant measurements. First, we explain the rheological behaviour by traditional granular interactions, such as wall and loosening effects.
It is based on the assumption of acoustemology and field recording method. Data was gathered during research within truck drivers working for Western European freight companies and who inhabit cabs of their tractors units.
Research corresponds with a current trend of anthropology of sound that consider audio-representations as a counterfactual way of production of anthropological knowledge.
On the methodological level the main goal of my study was to transgress academic visuality. To accomplish this purpose I have decided to experience an ethnographic fieldwork through sound. Keywords acoustemology, ambiance, anthropology of sound, audioethnography, dwelling, mobility, movement, road studies DOI I linked audio recording with practicing sensitivity indispensable for conducting ethnographic research in the area of anthropology at home Peirano , , especially in the context of urbanized and infrastructural day-to-day reality, where we encounter obvious and domesticated pheno- mena, which usually makes them semantically transparent for us Atkinson , ; , 12— Since I became interested in sound, I focus on the methodological aspect of applying the very basic assumption of anthropology of sound or more broadly - anthropology of senses that scientific democratization of senses and devisualization of field knowledge is not only possible but also epistemically prospective Howes , ; ; Stoller ; Pater- son , Generally, sound its production, distribution and all types of auditory practices significantly influences the way we experience reality.
This influence is, in my opi- nion, especially pronounced in the urban, or widely speaking industrial, environment, which tend to be particularly sounded.
My first project where I consistently applied the ideas of anthropology of sound was created as late as in This is when I started doing ethnographic mobile studies among tractor unit drivers working for international forwarding companies and dealing with transport of goods in western Europe2.
In the summer , I got into the cab of a tractor unit for the first time. It was on the Danish-German border. The tractor unit with a semitrailer belonged to an international for- warding company employing about drivers, mostly from Poland and Romania. This was when I set off on a three-week-long journey with my key informer — a professional driver with 30 years of experience.
The project is located in between cultural anthro- pology, ethnography and the free culture movement, and should be associated with a postulate of sharing and democratizing both fieldwork and scientific knowledge. Also I have carried out the following projects to date: Mobile modernizations. The influence of A2 motorway on the local cultural landscapes — a project financed by the National Science Centre, Mobility industry: between the regime of logistics and performance , Transnationality on the road.
Padborg, Denmark, I could not hide anything and I was completely dependent on the subject of my study. I started this journey with a certain idea of what experiences I would have on the road. I only had a roughly defined conceptual line, so making a decision to travel by a tractor unit was rather connected with searching for new ethnographic fascinations moti- vated more by aesthetics than by science.
Finally, I wanted to find out whether it was possible to apply in practice the ideas of sound anthropology, acoustemology in particular. I was especially interested in the ways of dwelling in the conditions created by constant movement and flow, which meant domesticating both the cab spaces and the spaces where the drivers usually park, such as parking lots, industrial zones and forwarding company bases, or simply roadsides.
In order to understand and adequately describe them, I decided to use a multisensory observation method with a particular emphasis on deep and participant listening Olivieros ; Forsey , — My basic research technique was field recording.
I assumed that I would be faced with the very heart of mobility and road culture, that I would be pacing constantly for thousands of kilometers and during breaks I would inten- sively integrate with drivers of various ethnic origins and nationalities. I was mistaken: I was on the road rather rarely, and the travelling spaces I had an opportunity to visit were mainly dominated by Poles.
Mobility was replaced by immobility and stillness. During my first trip, I had an opportunity to take part in shuttle transportation, which is carried out between a few specifically defined locations. Additionally, this was also seasonal transport in Denmark and Germany, conditioned by the weather.
Since my driver and I transported fruits, we circulat- ed among farms, wholesale warehouses and processing plants located in specialized industrial zones.
The mentioned weather conditions turned out to be rather significant as they were not Audio file 2: The Elbe and rainy crossing. Rain and gales destroyed its continuity: fruits could not be picked so transporting them did not make sense. In this situation, the daily life of a tractor unit driver and mine mainly consisted of pausing, waiting for further instructions, loading, unloading, documents, the end of a pause and the end of the rain.
It was about waiting in specific places characterized by specific visual and acoustic, cultural and social features: parking lots, bushes, the middle of fields, industrial zones, ramps, queues, ferries or harbor customs borders.
At the same time, the route I had taken was very clearly characterized by locality. A tractor unit cab is literally a home or a place where and through which drivers manifest and preserve their cultural identity.
I was simultaneously mobile and immobile, whereas my research became translocal and unpredictable. Most of the time, I had a very confusing feeling that I was at the same time not moving from the place I was in and being in a place that was on the move. The moments when I was moving were rare and inevitably, specifically localized.
Although I had not set off with a specific theoretical project on my mind, except for a plan of checking whether it was actually possible to practically apply the anthropology of sound, it was still very important for me from the very beginning to systemize my research activities, which I decided to carry out on three levels: classical one — fieldnotes and field diary, visual one — photography, and audioethnographic one — field recordings.
I had not planned to conduct any interviews and I was rather leaning towards multisensory experience and ethnographic im- mersion Helmreich , ; , 10; Thibaud consisting in hearing, feeling, tasting, smelling and observing. I thought that collecting their stories would result in merely a set of anecdotes, impressions and fragmented narrations.
The specific nature of my field was not conducive to ethnography in its classical understanding. The chosen documentation method emerging from fieldwork knowledge is consistent with the empirical data published in Transportodrone blog, which is a chronological, multilayered record of my first day journey.
Each day is presented in a form of field notes, photographs, a description of collected sounds and audio files, together with maps of places, where the re- cordings were made. This multi-layer nature of the data simultaneously reflects three ways in which I experienced the field.
For three weeks, I lived on about three square meters with my driver. This is why I got immersed in the field very quickly. I was exclusively in male company of drivers, workers from factories, processing plants and wholesale warehouses where we loaded and unloaded the carried goods. I observed men. I went for walks or shopping with them. I cooked, ate and drank whiskey with them. I exchanged CDs and talked about some silly things with them. Sometimes I photographed them. I observed how they were working, pausing, what they were wearing, how they were managing their time, communicating with their families, I checked what type of if any community they were forming.
I also experienced all sorts of treatment: as a sexual object, quasi-daughter, colleague, a person who should be pitied because of her unidentified occupation of an anthropologist and also, by mistake, as another professional driver.
However, they had a different quality. My expectations and ideas were imbued with stereotypes concerning tractor unit drivers. What actually turned out to be most signifi- cant in this context was the link between masculinity especially male body and machines es- pecially tractor units in ambivalent conditions: simultaneous mobility and immobility, muti- lisitedness and locality, internationality and nationalism.
Acoustemology of tractor unit and dwelling on the road Acoustemology is a theory that verges between anthropology and ethnomusicology and deals with acoustic reality.
It concerns the cognitive potential of sound and its audibility, which allows for understanding their sense and meanings. This approach emphasizes auditory prac- tices, both the present and the historic ones, as well as collective and individual ones.
It offers an alternative for the visual paradigm, which has dominated the western concept of knowledge and human perception since Renaissance. Ethnomusicologist Steven Feld was the one who initiated acoustemological approach as an alternative to the anthropology of music, already well-established in the s Merriam This scholar demonstrated an impressive poten- tial of sound and listening with reference to the system of cultural meanings and social situati- ons where they can be found.
His approach should be interpreted as rejection of the traditional, acoustic and musicological sound interpretation, which defined it as a physical phenomenon that can undergo scientific objectification. Acoustemology is actually a sounded variant of epistemology, where cognitive processes are shaped on the basis of experience, valuation and use. It allows for asking a question about what is already discovered and discoverable through sound and hearing, and how sound influences the social; how and in which contexts the social and the cultural are decisive about some gro- ups of people, phenomena, or identity manifestations etc.
The concept of acoustemology does not imply epistemology in the formal sense. As its creator Steven Feld claims, it is not about metaphysical and transcendental proposition pertaining to the notion of truth. It is more about relationality of knowledge production processes, which John Dewey calls contextual and experimental cognition Dewey, Bantley Steven Feld introduced acoustemology in in order to locate in the social studies his research on the cultural di- mension of sound Feld , This dimension is nothing else than sounded relations between people, non-human reality things, animals, plants , the environment and technology.
Thus, the anthropology of sound studies relations in activities, whose creation is closely linked to the acoustic aspects of everyday life understood as an intrinsic element of the habitus. The scientific discovery through relations makes us aware of the fact that we never acquire knowled- ge in a simple way, because this process always includes interaction, communication and it is conditioned by the processes of participation and reflection Feld , Anthropology of sound supports the idea of taking into consi- deration variety of sounds and widening the notion of music by including e.
It is also crucial not to ignore the technological mediation of sound and the ways sound circulates in a given socio-cultural context. Therefore, sound reproduction and distribution should always be taken into consideration. At the same time, it should be noted that acoustemology rejects the most important legacy of acoustic ecology, i.
This is caused by the fact that the landscape analogy is inadequate as it evokes physical distance to the already mentioned relationality, agen- cy and perception. Acoustemology is not supposed to serve yet another essentialization and its application does not result in substituting a visualistic ocularcentrism with sonocentrism see also Helmreich , 10; Ingold , From the anthropological point of view, when we take into consideration the acoustic dimension of social life, listening should be located in its center and engaged in a specific time-space context.
Thus, tractor unit acoustemology, which is the subject of this article, would be founded on a rather unoriginal idea that everyday life of tractor unit drivers is shared with various Others and based on real, virtual and imagined relations and co-activities.
This relationality is the basic condition of dwelling on the road, a product of conscious or unconscious ways of multisensual participation in the world, conditioned by, e. Sound should be studied in such situations where the subject who is listening is mentally and physically involved.
Avoiding the acoustic in anthropological practices, especially among communities living in acoustically rich environments, is an unfair privilege awarded to visuality. What is sonic in a given culture is also socially situated and manifested to the people experien- cing it, if we assume that sound is something that influences and resonates in them. The ability to assimilate, express and reflect sounds is one of the basic tools that allows people to orientate themselves in the reality surrounding them.
It becomes an element of various cosmologies and a medium for communication and expression. However, applying sound anthropology in studies conducted among tractor unit drivers, so in a context filled with intensive buzz and noisy aco- ustics, turned out to be difficult and not so obvious, especially due to methodological reasons.
Sound anthropology is a rather narrow specialization characterized by interdisciplinarity, often entering scientific discourses which are not always very useful in the context of the reflec- tions on the urban and western European audiosphere. It is not a simple task to keep these re- flections in the anthropological paradigm, considering this interdisciplinarity, which is a blend of philosophical, musical reflection and acoustic ecology.
Moreover, most of the publications on this subject which can be called anthropological refer to studies located outside Europe and describing small communities Feld ; Roseman ; Yamada where the auditory reality with all its literal and cultural distinctness makes it very difficult for the anthropological reflection on a complex, urbanized and postindustrial community to defend itself.
It is not a simple task to look outside the fenomenoligizing, aesthetizing, ecologizing sonic experience of roadside, parking or factory spaces.
Since my goal was to make an attempt to describe with sound the daily life of this occupational group, every sound that I heard and decided to register could turn out to be important.
This audioethnography of a kind was actually my conscious, and thus selective, ac- tive and in-depth listening, sensitive to the presence and significance of sound. Therefore, I did not restrict myself to registering composed sounds music , speech and narration, but I rather focused on general acoustic environment, even if it contained tractor unit engines roaring mo- notonously, the motorway humming, boiling water bubbling or the belts fastened on the loads creaking.
Ethnography should study the sounds that people hear every day because this is one of the ways they discover, experience and exist in the world. According to Steven Feld, a place is created the moment sounds are produced and present Feld , Regardless whether sound is particularly appreciated in a given culture or not, including it in the notion of habitus widens the perspective applied by anthropology to look closer at certain phenomena and cul- tural activities.
A tractor unit is a three-square-meter space, which becomes a place carrying a certain value and significance owing to certain appropriating activities, both symbolic and material. Drivers themselves call their cars homes on wheels.
Moreover, these moving houses constitute specific points where strategies characteristic for transnational relations are put in practice. Drivers are constantly in touch with their families and friends, calling or contacting them on the Internet, and their cabs which they appropriate, are filled with material manife- stations of the homes which they have left their roots in.
The mentioned cyclical nature of this appropriation stems from the fact that, in the case of the company whose tractor units I was travelling in, setting off on a new journey which takes three to four weeks with a one-week break equals entering a different three-meter space from the previous one as each time the dri- vers are assigned a new tractor unit.
The company which my drivers work for owns tractor units and about semitrailers. The semitrailers are sometimes pulled by tractor units that do not belong to the company, but are leased by the drivers. This means that every few weeks the drivers have to recreate their workspace and dwelling. In practice, this reproduction always follows a certain pattern where an identical set of accessories is used. Drivers domesticate these spaces with a local set of objects, such as spotted, striped or flowery sheets, small rugs, cushions of different shapes, stuffed toys sometimes with regional symbols or shapes , family photo- graphs, plastic bowls where they wash themselves, fragrant gadgets, laptops with wallpapers always presenting their homes or the local landscape.
They do not enter the cab in shoes, but in slippers, they drink from mugs presenting their children, eat from plates that are a part of the tableware left at home. The interiors of their cars are cleaned every single day: they beat dust out of the rugs, clean it from the furniture and sweep out the cabs.
It happens very rarely in Europe that a driver is at the same time the owner of a tractor unit, which excludes the possibility of personalizing the unit on the outside. They also do not display the names of the drivers. They are simply cars of a certain make having a certain reputation concerning the amount of space provided, ergonomics, sustainability and of course frequency of failure. It is also difficult to find analogies between the culture of American and European tractor unit drivers.
In Europe, this occupation is not so well-reputed and socially respected as in the USA, and it bears no connection with the mythologized idea of freedom and nomadic journey see DePillo, Poduch ; Hamilton ; Ouellet European tractor units are not only places for everyday interactions with the closest ones, but also spaces allowing to express family bonds as well as ethnic and national identity.
This is where multisensual representations of locality are developed with the use of all the senses: sight, hearing, smell and taste.
Simultaneously, they are also private and intimate places, sealed and shielded from the outside world in spite of the simultaneous, constant, panoptical even access to the outside Laurier ; Laurier, Lorimier et al. Temporary locations in the mentioned non-places blur the definiteness of this category by often taking a repetitive and sometimes routinized form.
All types of parking lots, roadsides, transport centers, gas stations, forwarding company bases, industrial zones whe- re the localnesses situated on three square meters, go outside and create a mutual, often natio- nalized relation.
So what does dwelling on the road sound like? What can be scientifically achieved through registration and then analysis and interpretation of field recordings? Audio file 3: Parking for trucks at night. Near of Kolding, Denmark, I locate the experience of tractor unit cab between stimulus and deprivation. The fieldwork among the drivers was ambivalent because, on the one hand, it was very intensive and vibrant sensually intensive, full of stimuli and stressors , and on the other hand, it was extremely homogenous noises, stinks, the same tastes all the time, the same routine, the never-ending waiting.
In most cases they were manifested, generated and perceptible with the sense of hearing. Dwelling ambience on the road is only seemingly marked by monotony and homogeneity. Although it is mainly characterized by what people usually call noise, this noise is nuanced. Audio file 4: Whirr of battery recharging. Somewhere in Denmark, Oure, Denmark, Bodily sounds are mostly those sounds which are audible inside the cab, connected with physiology and metabolism and also with the specific feeling of sensory deprivation caused by routine, boredom and constant waiting.
These sounds become most pronounced when there is a standstill, or when drivers work in pairs and the sounds gain importance due to the presence of a second person. These are moaning, puffing, farting, hiccups, stomach gurgling, eructation, burping, loud swallowing of saliva, saliva squirting, scratching, snoring, throat clearing, click- ing, slight coughing, hissing, sighing and nose blowing.
Then, especially if minutes and hours go by while waiting for instructions, loading or un- loading, there is tapping fingers on the cockpit, finger snapping, button pushing, feet shuffling, teeth grinding, clicking phalanges, whistling and murmuring.
Audio file 6: Waiting, pausing, crunching. Neuenkirchen, Germany, It is, thus, important to me as a researcher and it should be analyzed with reference to autoethno- graphic approach Okely , My permanent presence activated the importance of the above sounds.
The studies I was conducting equaled cohabitation, cooperation and co-presence. Therefore, the field was instantly materialized, while the concept of participant observation gai- ned a different meaning and I started treating this method with some suspicion. Three square meters of the cab were of course a part of the field, but this part which I was present in all the time.
The participation and the said observation were so intensive that the traditional meaning of this study technique was insufficient. In anthropology, the idea of intimacy is associated with the concept of Michael Herzfeld as cultural intimacy , which I have borrowed from him due to a few reasons Herzfeld Firstly, cultural intimacy seems to be a crucial element of the relations between the drivers who I had an opportunity to meet and observe. Those relations are surely characterized by community cordiality expressed by not hiding bodily sounds, but for example, rather burping together, or lack of any reservations when farting in the company of others , which I could also identify with to some extent, especially with reference to my nationality.
Secondly, this very intimacy and familiarity which took a total, even radical form, describes this research field and its intimate acoustics the best. The acoustic experiencing of three square meters was verging on embarrassment caused by the lack of privacy and the inevitable closeness, including the emo- tional closeness whether it was desired or not.
Emotions are often manifested with the body: the way of speaking, reactions, gestures and other incontrollable bodily behaviors connected to metabolism or physiology. Personal, individual privacy was impossible to achieve. These experiences were perceptively intense because of the acute- ness of multisensory stimuli, which were impossible to avoid. This unavoidable existence in the center of reality which I wanted to become my new research field made it possible for me to observe, or rather feel, and hear, everything very closely, in a most awkward and embarrassing, sometimes even unbearable, way.
Drivers never cease to be on the road, even if they are on their one- or two-week breaks at home. They constantly talk about what happened to them, where they were, what they saw and who they met. Audio file 7: Trucker tales or pause and boredom.
One or two weeks of a break is a time for preparing to the next cycle connected with recreating and preserving their mobile dwelling so that the driver could feel there at home. Hence, it must look, smell, sound properly and enable the driver to undertake daily, ideolo- gically localized activities, such as watching favorite TV shows, listening to Polish music, the radio or even watching Polish TV.
Audio file 8: Watching movie. This is the reason why the cate- gory that describes such a way of life is multilocalness, which scholars such as Vincent Kauf- mann , or Johanna Rolshoven , interpret as a strategy necessary to contextualize the activities undertaken by mobile actors. The practice of locating themselves in mobile places makes those drivers become creators of localness in numerous localizations in the conditions of flow and mobility.
National identification of tractor unit drivers in the spaces of mobility takes place, as men- tioned before, in a multisensory way. Mutual recognition does not only depend on visuality because European drivers wear similar clothes, and the cars and semitrailers assigned to them are registered in different European countries. In the international and multilingual working conditions experienced by the drivers, even language loses its quality to identify somebody in a definite way.
You can recognize your people by the smell of the food they are heating, the type of beer they are drinking or the music they are listening to. Cultural intimacy comes to light not only during pauses and while waiting, but also when the drivers are fulfilling their respon- sibilities.
They are not just passive machine operators whose task is to transport about 40 tons of all types of goods. They are also responsible for taking care of the load: placing it safely in the semitrailer, securing it against movement and then making sure it is safely unloaded.
They also need to pay attention to whether the distribution of the goods is properly documented, they often have to negotiate with forwarding offices or on customs borders. Nationality is the key element in those negotiations. Polish drivers use a specific language, a type of jargon created on the basis of the vocabulary connected with forwarding, logistics and physical work. This jargon is a blend of the official languages spoken in the countries where the drivers travel with their goods.
In the case of the company whose cars I was travelling in, these countries were Germany, Denmark, the Netherlands, Belgium, France, Switzerland and Norway. The voca- bulary acquired by the Polish drivers oftentimes turns out to be insufficient when bureaucracy comes into play. This is when office employees who are Poles, have Polish, or at least Russian or Ukrainian, origin linguistic similarities , become the key personae, and such people can be encountered in the most surprising places.
This type of intimacy significantly facilitates not only the work of the Polish drivers, but also the speed of the flow of goods in Europe if we take into consideration that most drivers working in Europe are Poles. Owing to this intimacy, some strict rules governing many forwarding companies, factories, wholesale warehouses or proces- sing plants, are broken, for example, working hours, times when goods can be received into the warehouse, lunch break hours.
There are fluctuating whirring of the engine depending on the engi- ne revs, suppressed sounds from the inside of the cab and the semitrailer, sounds of un loading , blinking of the turn-signal, sounds of forklifts, passing cars, trains, humming and hissing of fac- tories, steel plants, the noise of ferries, turbines, airplanes, the buzzing of the truck fridge, facto- ry coolers, clumping, rumbling, clomping, whistling, whooshing, whizzing, zipping, knocking, pattering, cracking, crunching, horning, tooting, beeping, recharging batteries, sound of the air-conditioning, cranes or pile drivers.
A turn-signal sound. Hilden, Germany, Randers, Germany, Many of them are generated with the work of muscles: moving the tarpaulin, securing the load, with belts creaking when pulled with carabiners. These are also the sounds produced by the carried loads: gurgling, creaking, squeaking, me- tallic tapping, knocking, rumbling. Additionally, there are the sounds connected with fueling up, passing through the gates on motorways, humming of the traffic also during traffic jams , the noises generated by roadworks and repairs on the way, e.
Audio file Tires swap. Pagborg, Denmark, To make it simpler, what constitutes this ambience are noises and buzzes, popularly and ecologically deemed as undesired, polluting the acoustic environment, the symptom of a lo-fi soundscape Schefer But this is exactly the factor decisive about the immersion in the field.
Each space has an acoustic dimension which co-creates its specific nature. However, the at- mosphere of a given space or place is not created by sound itself. In order to feel the atmosphere and then understand it, one needs a multisensual experience and know the social, cultural and historical meanings inherent to it.
The feeling, immersion and experiencing are not sufficient for a researcher. One cannot exist without the other: cultural mechanisms cannot be adequately described and explained without being experienced with many senses. On the other hand, such multisensual experience cannot be interpreted without the knowledge of its context. Applying the method of immersive ethnography in the case of my studies, whose direction was mainly established with this noise characteristic for this context, would not be complete without ta- king into consideration light, colors, smells, bodily experiences, movement, vibration, ways of moving, talking and communicating.
Ambiences always produce a blend of synesthesia proprioception, a complex mix- ture of perception, impressions and emotions. They are always closely linked to the connection between sensations and socially and culturally conditioned expression. Ambiance can be defined as a time-space form of a sensory point of view. It is related to feeling a place. Thus, ambiance is at the same time subjective and objective: it includes the experiences of people, but also creates a context for their lives, daily activities, temporary or permanent situations Thibaud Audio file GPS crash.
Hamburg, Germany, Spjald, Denmark, Drivers enter into verbal interaction with their GPS systems: they talk to them, ask them questions, lace into them and curse them. As a result, mobile workplaces are always precisely localized. Drivers constantly monitor their locations and the movement of their tractor units. In the situations where drivers cannot find the right way or a certain address, their family members come to their aid.
However, situations when people organize guides for the drivers who have got lost are equally frequent, especially in small towns and villages. Humburg, Germany, Sounds produced by mobile de- vices co-create the daily ambience of working and dwelling on the road. Michael Bull , defines this phenomenon as the auditory privatization of public space.
For this reason, my research constitute an expression of resistance to the visual paradigm. Vision is simply insufficient. Therefore, tractor unit drivers use music and other musical sounds to emphasize their background and identity. For Polish drivers, this constitutes an important demonstration of their national origin. This is the reason why listening to loud music is crucial: it allows drivers of a given nationality to identify one another.
The radio creates the atmosphere of being in Germany, the Czech Republic, France, Denmark or the Netherlands see Bull , ; , ; Stockfelt , Listening to music in cabs is also related to creating an acoustic cocoon in order to achieve serenity Bijsterveld , At parking lots, this is additionally accompanied by visual isolation after closing the curtains tightly, which intensifies the sense of intimacy and privacy.
More of- ten than not, it is related to the rationing the access to the cab and a sense of control over the acoustic environment. Audio file Listening Polish electro-pop. They are fully dependent on forwarding agents, their working time and driving time regime, employees at various levels of hierarchy at loading and unloading locati- ons, and on various incidents road accidents, traffic jams, weather conditions, breakdowns of tractor units.
The food consumed by the drivers: its smell, preparation and consumption, constitutes the most expressive demonstration of their national origin. Audio file Frying Polish potatos. Langenfeld, Germany, Those jars carried by the Polish drivers contain bigos, stuffed cabbage, pork chops and frikadellers, stew, soups, croquettes, pancakes, salads, fried fish. Apart from jars, the drivers are always equipped with home-made cakes and biscuits, white wheat bread or rolls, Polish beer and vodka.
During their hour weekend pauses, drivers sometimes prepare common meals which constitute a mixture of simple ethnic dishes. Anthropology of sound and ambiances of mobility What can be offered by the acoustemological approach and audioethnography in the context of the presence and use of sound in the culture of tractor unit drivers?
Knowledge about the world is mainly associated with vision but this does not change the fact that the reality on and by the road is experienced through various sounds produced by human activity those accompanying interactions, life of various professional groups related to freight transport and production, those accompanying nomadism and tourism or roadside entertainment , mechanical sounds all sorts of drones: from the sounds of traffic through those of construction machinery to household appliances , reproduced composed sounds music ubiquitous at petrol stations, in shops, restau- rants, shared or privatized with from MP3 players, iPods, mobile phones or laptops as well as natural sounds wind, water, animals.
Furthermore, sound or, in particular, ambiance facilitate scientific immersion. We are surrounded by sounds which propagate all around us and come from far and wide all at the same time. In other words, sounds set us in the very centre of the world Ong Resonating is the key phenomenon for the acoustic environment experienced by tractor unit drivers.
It is also recognized as the basis for broadly defined sensorial experience. Sensation is not possible without vibrations and resonance, regardless of whether we talk abo- ut sound, light or texture Deleuze Elisabeth Grosz makes the following comment on the topic: sensation is nothing else than vibrations which resonate inside our bodies — in our internal organs and the nervous system Grosz , Sound also reveals the context and facilitates documenting and describing the dynamics of ambiance owing to its aforementioned physical properties.
Therefore, field recording constitu- tes an effective method of ethnography of senses. It is crucial to understand that one cannot experience sound without time which it is constitutive for. According to Henri Lefebvre , it is impossible to understand the atmosphere of a given place without its rhythm.
Research practice reflected in anthropology of sound actually mirrors the lifestyle of drivers whose activities, work and everyday lives are concealed in the periodic mobility. While listening to ambiance, we primarily hear how it is generated as it is in a constant process of formation and transformation owing to various social practices.
Therefore, it is not just a space and it does not exist without human activity. In the face of that, ambiance is always collective and reflects certain parts of social life. Thus, the acoustic dimension of a single tractor unit cab constitutes one of many possible atmospheres of this space. The sound itself does not work. Of course, limiting knowledge to visuality sets limits to our ability to understand the meanings of certain places, events and behaviors. Sound itself does not work. Moreover, these places also smell and are physically experienced, so experiencing them will always be a kind of sensual semiosis.