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Best cheap ice chest cooler with wheels and speakers best icce packs for camping. The river has its source in Ekiti State , in the west of Nigeria, and passes through the city of Osogbo , where Osun-Osogbo Sacred Grove , the principal sanctuary of the deity, is located.

Although the female spirits were tempted to take matters into their own hands, they knew nothing can be done without masculine leadership. Anything they attempt to do without the male spiritual leadership would fail.

Shango forced the other spirits hand to respect Osun as they would him. Once Osun saw the power that Shango possessed, she honored him and dedicated to serve as his wife.

Through her loyalty, the Gods granted her the powers of a Goddess. While still a mortal, Osun is said to have gone to a drum festival one day and to have fallen in love with Shango.

Since that day, Shango has been married to Oba, Oya, and though Osun is said to be his favourite. It is also said that Osun was the first woman to be referred to as an Iyalode. Osun is the orisha of the river. Her devotees leave her offerings and perform ceremonies at bodies of fresh water such as rivers, streams and canals. Followers seek help for romantic problems from Osun; the orisha is also responsible for marriage and other relationships.

This passion was to dominate his emotional life for the next four years, causing him much torment, not so much because of the objections that Maria's prosperous banker father no doubt had about entertaining a struggling young freelance reporter as a prospective son-in-law, but because Maria herself seems to have been of a flirtatious disposition, so that Dickens could never be sure of her real feelings towards him. His steely ambition to make a mark in the world in one way or another was given a keener edge by his passionate desire to make her his wife.

He sought to improve himself by reading in the British Museum Shakespeare and the classics, English and Roman history , having applied for a reader's ticket at the first possible moment, just after his eighteenth birthday. Aware that he had a definite histrionic talent, he also considered the idea of a stage career and obtained spring an audition at Covent Garden, but in the event a bad cold prevented him from attending and shortly afterwards came an opportunity to develop his journalistic career.

During or he had begun to get work, perhaps as a supernumerary, on his uncle's paper and then in he was taken on to the regular staff of a new evening paper, the True Sun. He rapidly acquired a reputation as an outstanding parliamentary reporter and, having inherited to the full his father's love of convivial occasions, pursued at the same time an energetic social life.

In April , anticipating a favourite activity of his later years, he organized some elaborate private theatricals at his parents' home in Bentinck Street. Shortly afterwards came the final cruel collapse of all hopes of winning Maria's heart. The intense pain this caused him left a permanent scar on his emotional life, although he was able to present Maria and his ardent youthful love for her in a comic-sentimental light in the Dora episodes of David Copperfield.

Many years later he wrote to her that ' the wasted tenderness of those hard years ' had bred in him ' a habit of suppression … which I know is no part of my original nature, but which makes me chary of showing my affections, even to my children, except when they are very young ' Letters , 7.

In December Dickens's first published literary work appeared in the Monthly Magazine ; it was a farcical little story of middle-class manners called 'A Dinner at Poplar Walk' later retitled as 'Mr Minns and his Cousin'. Over the next year it was followed, in the same periodical the owner of which, a Captain Holland , could not offer any payment by several other stories in a similar vein, for the sixth of which Dickens first used the pen-name Boz derived from his little brother Augustus's mispronunciation of Moses , his Goldsmithian family nickname.

Dickens's appointment, in August , to the reporting staff of the leading whig newspaper, the Morning Chronicle , at a salary of 5 guineas per week, placed his career on a firm footing and he was soon distinguishing himself not only as a brilliant shorthand writer but also as a most effective and efficient special correspondent, reporting provincial elections and other events, and being exhilarated by the keen competition provided by the Times correspondent.

In September he began to contribute a series of 'Street Sketches' , illustrative of everyday London life, to the Chronicle. These attracted favourable notice and his offer to write, for extra pay, a similar series, twenty 'Sketches of London' , for the newly founded sister paper the Evening Chronicle , was welcomed by that paper's editor, George Hogarth. The last of these, 'The Streets at Night' , appeared in January , to be swiftly followed by a collected two-volume edition, Sketches by Boz , published by John Macrone and illustrated by the renowned comic artist George Cruikshank.

The two-volume edition of Sketches by Boz , for which Dickens specially wrote two non-comic pieces, 'A Visit to Newgate' and 'The Black Veil' , was extremely well received.

The sketches were praised for their humour, wit, touches of pathos, and the ' startling fidelity ' of their descriptions of London life Collins , Critical Heritage , Meanwhile, he continued with all his routine journalistic work and coped as best he could with his father's recurring financial crises, helped by close friends like his fellow journalist Thomas Beard , who was to remain a lifelong and much loved friend, and the young lawyer Thomas Mitton , who acted as his solicitor for many years.

He took lodgings for himself and his fourteen-year-old brother Fred in Furnival's Inn, Holborn. By this time he had become acquainted with George Hogarth's family and had become attracted to the eldest daughter, Catherine — , though without the passionate intensity that had characterized his love for Maria Beadnell , and he became engaged to her during the summer of In February , just after the appearance of the two-volume Sketches by Boz , two young booksellers who were moving into publishing, Edward Chapman and William Hall , approached Dickens to write the letterpress for a series of steel-engraved plates by the popular comic artist Robert Seymour depicting the misadventures of a group of cockney sportsmen, to be published in twenty monthly numbers, each containing four plates.

He accepted the commission despite Ainsworth's warning that he would demean himself by participating in such a ' low ' form of publication, but stipulated that he should be allowed to widen the scope of the proposed subject ' with a freer range of English scenes and people '. He then, he later recalled, ' thought of Mr Pickwick, and wrote the first number ' Preface to the Cheap Edition of Pickwick , They spent their honeymoon in the Kentish village of Chalk and then set up home in the new and more spacious chambers Dickens had taken in Furnival's Inn where he was already established.

On 20 April Seymour committed suicide but the publishers boldly decided to continue the series, despite disappointing initial sales. Seymour was replaced, after the brief trial of R. Buss , with a young artist, Hablot Knight Browne Phiz , who was Dickens's main illustrator for the next twenty-three years.

With the introduction of Sam Weller in the fourth number sales began to increase dramatically and soon Pickwick was the greatest publishing sensation since Byron had woken to find himself famous, as a result of the publication of the first two cantos of Childe Harold , in The depiction of the benevolent old innocent Mr Pickwick and the streetwise but good-hearted Sam Weller as a sort of latter-day Don Quixote and Sancho Panza, the rich evocation of that pre-railway, pre- Reform Bill England that was so rapidly disappearing, the idyll of Dingley Dell, the sparkling social comedy and hilarious legal satire, the comic and pathetic scenes in the Fleet prison, the astonishing variety of vividly evoked and utterly distinct characters, the bravura wit and, above all, that ' endless fertility in laughter-causing detail ' that Walter Bagehot later called ' Mr Dickens's most astonishing peculiarity ' Collins , Critical Heritage , —all these things combined to give The Pickwick Papers a phenomenal popularity that transcended barriers of class, age, and education.

Mary Russell Mitford wrote to an Irish friend, ' All the boys and girls talk [ Dickens's ] fun—the boys in the street; and yet those who are of the higher taste like it the most.

It was successfully produced at the St James's Theatre 9 September and ran for fifty nights. He also wrote, under the pseudonym Timothy Sparks , an anti-sabbatarian pamphlet, Sunday under Three Heads , the precursor of many later attacks on what he saw as blatantly hypocritical and class-biased legislative proposals. By late October he had clearly decided that he would be able to live by his pen and resigned from his Morning Chronicle post. Dickens was, in fact, grotesquely over-committed to publishers who were all eager to sign up the dazzling new literary star.

He accepted Richard Bentley's invitation to edit a new monthly magazine, Bentley's Miscellany , to begin publication in the new year, being already committed to write two three-volume novels for Bentley , as well as a third novel, Gabriel Vardon, the Locksmith of London , for Macrone , and another as yet unnamed work of the same length and nature as Pickwick for Chapman and Hall.

He had been at work, with J. Hullah , on a rather vapid operetta, The Village Coquettes , which was produced at the St James's on 6 December but had only a short run, and throughout he had been publishing more sketches in the Morning Chronicle and elsewhere, including some of his finest work in this genre, such as 'Meditations in Monmouth Street'.

These sketches, together with earlier ones still uncollected, were gathered up in the one-volume Sketches by Boz: Second Series published by Macrone on 17 December. This volume ended with an item written specially for it, a Grand Guignol piece called 'The Drunkard's Death'. About this time Dickens first met probably through Ainsworth John Forster , a young theatre critic, literary reviewer, and historian, who had moved to London from Newcastle and was already very much in the swim of the metropolitan literary world.

Forster became one of Dickens's most intimate friends and his lifelong trusted literary adviser—even to some extent collaborator, since from October he read everything that Dickens wrote, either in manuscript or proof—as well as his chosen biographer. Forster's legal training and expertise made him an invaluable ally in Dickens's many disputes with publishers, the first of which was with Macrone to whom Dickens had sold the copyright of Sketches by Boz as part of a deal to release himself from the promise to write Gabriel Vardon.

Macrone sought to profit from the success of Pickwick by proposing to issue both series of the Sketches in twenty monthly parts. Dickens strongly objected and tried through Forster's agency to dissuade Macrone.

In the end, Chapman and Hall bought the copyright from Macrone for a substantial sum and themselves issued Sketches in monthly parts from November to June , with additional Cruikshank plates and with pink covers to distinguish the work from Pickwick in its green monthly covers.

At the conclusion of this serialization, the Sketches were published in one volume, described on the title-page as a ' new edition, complete '. The first number of Bentley's Miscellany , edited by ' Boz ' and with illustrations by Cruikshank , came out in January and in February appeared the first instalment of Dickens's new story, Oliver Twist, or, The Parish Boy's Progress , which ran in the journal for twenty-four months during the first ten of which Dickens was also still writing a monthly Pickwick.

Oliver Twist was originally conceived as a satire on the new poor law of which herded the destitute and the helpless into harshly run union workhouses, and which was perceived by Dickens as a monstrously unjust and inhumane piece of legislation he was still fiercely attacking it in Our Mutual Friend in The pathos of little Oliver the first of many such child figures in Dickens , the farcical comedy of the Bumbles, the sinister fascination of Fagin, the horror of Nancy's murder, and the powerful evocation of London's dark and labyrinthine criminal underworld, all helped to drive Dickens's popularity to new heights.

But there was mounting tension between himself and Bentley because of the latter's constant interference with Dickens's editorial freedom and his quibbles over the extent of Dickens's own contributions.

Bentley also irritated Dickens by pressing for the delivery of a new novel that is, the Gabriel Vardon originally contracted to Macrone , now renamed Barnaby Rudge ; Dickens , having bought himself out of the arrangement with Macrone , had now signed a contract for the book with Bentley. Sometimes the relationship temporarily improved, as in November , when Dickens agreed to edit for Bentley the memoirs of the great clown Joey Grimaldi published with an 'Introductory chapter' and a concluding one by Dickens , and wonderful illustrations by Cruikshank , in February , but at last came a complete rupture and Dickens resigned the editorship of the Miscellany in the January number.

By the summer of he was fully committed to Chapman and Hall as his sole publishers, having gradually disentangled himself—with their help, and that of Forster —from all commitments to Macrone and Bentley , the latter now usually referred to by Dickens in very uncomplimentary terms ' the Vagabond ', ' the Burlington Street Brigand ', and so on.

The promised Pickwick -style work for Chapman and Hall , now carrying the very eighteenth-century style title of The Life and Adventures of Nicholas Nickleby , had begun its monthly part-issue in March and was completed in twenty numbers in October This story, which for thirteen months Dickens wrote alongside Oliver Twist , originated in his determination to expose the scandal of unwanted children consigned to remote and brutal Yorkshire schools; accompanied by Browne , he conducted an on-the-spot midwinter investigation just before beginning to write Nickleby.

The story is rich in unforgettable comic characters like the endlessly garrulous Mrs Nickleby and the strolling player Vincent Crummles and his troupe, and in places it resembles Sketches by Boz in its vivid evocation of particular London neighbourhoods. Staying with them was Catherine's younger sister Mary Hogarth , whose sudden death on 7 May, aged only seventeen ' Young, beautiful and Good ' according to the epitaph Dickens composed for her headstone in Kensal Green cemetery , was a devastating blow to Dickens —so great, indeed, that he had to suspend the writing of both Pickwick and Oliver Twist for a month, a unique occurrence in his career.

He had lost, he wrote, ' the dearest friend I ever had ', one who sympathized ' with all my thoughts and feelings more than any one I knew ever did or will ', declaring also, ' I solemnly believe that so perfect a creature never breathed ' Letters , 1. It was the third great emotional crisis of his life, following the blacking factory experience and the Beadnell affair, and one that profoundly influenced him as an artist as well as a man.

In all other respects Dickens's life, both professional and personal, during the later s became steadily more prosperous. He formed close and lasting friendships with many leading figures in the world of the arts, notably the ' eminent tragedian ' William Charles Macready always a particularly loved and honoured friend , the painters Daniel Maclise and Clarkson Stanfield , the lawyer and dramatist Thomas Noon Talfourd , and the poet Walter Savage Landor ; he was elected to both the Garrick and the Athenaeum clubs, invited to Lady Blessington's salon, and lionized generally.

He also became acquainted with Thomas Carlyle , whom he greatly revered, and who profoundly influenced his thinking on social matters. He once said, ' I would go at all times farther to see Carlyle than any man alive ' Forster , Carlyle's first impression of Dickens was that he was ' a quiet, shrewd-looking, little fellow, who seems to guess pretty well what he is and what others are ' Letters , 2.

Maclise painted the twenty-eight-year-old Dickens's portrait as an elegant young writer and the portrait was engraved as the frontispiece to the volume edition of Nickleby. At the end of the growing Dickens family Mary , always known as Mamie , was born in , Kate Macready in moved into a much grander house, 1 Devonshire Terrace, Marylebone, near to Regent's Park.

Here Dickens would entertain friends but would also continue working, dashing up to London from time to time for business or social occasions. Master Humphrey's Clock began publication on 4 April Initial sales were very large but quickly declined when the public realized the Clock was not to be a continuous story. The reclusive old cripple Master Humphrey and his little club of old-fashioned story-tellers did not appeal to the public and even the reintroduction of Mr Pickwick and the Wellers failed to halt the sharp decline in sales.

The woodcut illustrations by Cattermole and Browne dropped into the text that were such a feature of the Clock made it an expensive product, so some prompt action was needed. Dickens quickly developed one of an intended series of 'Personal Adventures of Master Humphrey' into a full-length story and this, under the title The Old Curiosity Shop , soon took over the entire publication.

The story of Little Nell's wanderings about England with her helpless old grandfather, fleeing from Quilp, a grotesquely hideous, anarchic, and sexually predatory dwarf, is the most Romantic and fairy tale-like of Dickens's novels, and it also contains, in the story of Dick Swiveller and the Brasses' little slavey, the Marchioness, some of the greatest humorous passages that Dickens ever wrote.

By the end of the story's serialization in the Clock 6 February the circulation had reached a phenomenal , copies. Nell's slow decline and eventual off-stage beatified death plunged this vast readership into grief and mourning, Lord Jeffrey famously declaring that there had been ' nothing so good as Nell since Cordelia ' Forster , For Dickens himself it reopened an old wound: ' Dear Mary died yesterday, when I think of this sad story ' Letters , 2. The Shop was immediately succeeded in the Clock by the long projected Barnaby Rudge , Dickens's first historical novel, dealing with the anti-Catholic Gordon riots of and written in conscious emulation of Scott.

The completion of Barnaby 27 November ' worked off the last of the commitments so hastily entered into in the heady days of ' Patten , , ending five years of intensive labour which saw Dickens established as far and away the most popular writer in Britain, though he was somewhat bitterly aware that he was still making much more money for his publishers than for himself.

The triumphal welcome he received in Edinburgh in June , following an invitation to go there from Lord Jeffrey and other distinguished Scottish admirers, was a striking manifestation of the extraordinary public position this young writer now occupied.

The dinner in his honour was, he told Forster , ' the most brilliant affair you can conceive ' Forster , He himself spoke, in the two toasts he proposed, with notable effect and eloquence, as he was so often to do in later life as the star turn at other banquets, meetings, charitable dinners, and so on. Four days later he was given the freedom of the city, after which he and Catherine went on a scenic tour that took them as far north as Glencoe; they returned into England via Abbotsford in order to visit Scott's house.

The history of Scott's being forced by financial circumstances in his later years to maintain a prolific output was in Dickens's mind when he now proposed to Chapman and Hall that, after the cessation of the Clock on 27 November Barnaby Rudge had not gripped the reading public in the way that The Old Curiosity Shop had, and the magazine's circulation had fallen to 30, , he should have a sabbatical year.

By continuing to write incessantly he would, he feared, do ' what every other successful man has done ' and make himself ' too cheap ' Letters , 2. He was soon being ' haunted by visions of America, night and day ' Forster , and, Catherine's deep reluctance to leave the children having been overborne, resolved that they should make a six-months' tour there, the children to be left under Macready's care.

He would keep a notebook on his travels, and Chapman and Hall should publish it on his return. His eager preparations for the trip, excited as he was by communications like Washington Irving's telling him ' it would be such a triumph from one of the States to the other, as was never known in any Nation ' Letters , 2.

He soon recovered, polished off the last numbers of the Clock the final number appeared on 4 December , and engaged in a whirl of pre-embarkation social engagements. On 4 January Dickens and Catherine embarked on the steamship Britannia which, after a terrifying crossing, reached Halifax, Nova Scotia, on 19 January. Exhilarated by his initial experience of America, Dickens soon began to find, however, that the surging crowds of admirers who intruded themselves on him and Catherine at all hours were both exhausting and frustrating, and the tremendous flood of correspondence that came pouring in on him was simply overwhelming.

He had met Putnam when sitting for his portrait to Francis Alexander he sat also, but this time for a bust, to another local artist, Henry Dexter. In Boston, Dickens carried out the first of those investigative visits to prisons, asylums, and other public institutions that became such a feature of his American journey, and he met many notables, among them the celebrated poet Henry Wadsworth Longfellow and Cornelius Felton , professor of Greek at Harvard, both of whom became much-loved friends.

At a public banquet in his honour on 1 February he spoke with passion of having ' dreamed by day and night, for years, of setting foot upon this shore, and breathing this pure air ' Speeches , ed. Fielding , 19 but also touched briefly on the vexed question of the absence of any international copyright agreement between Britain and America, allowing the wholesale pirating of his own and other British authors' work by American newspapers.

Speaking at another banquet in his honour in Hartford on 8 February , he again referred to the international copyright question. Shortly afterwards, however, lying ill in his hotel room, he wrote to Jonathan Chapman , mayor of Boston, ' I am sick to death of the life I have been leading here—worn out in mind and body ', and inveighed against the newspapers for attacking him over international copyright ' in such terms of vagabond scurrility as they would denounce no murderer with ' Letters , 2.

Press attacks on his ' mercenariness ' and bad taste in speaking about money matters at gatherings in his honour were indeed often couched in crudely offensive terms. Dickens's romantic dream of America as a pure, free, ' innocent ' land, untrammelled by the corrupt institutions and the pernicious snobberies and class hatreds of the Old World, was rapidly turning sour, and he resolved to decline all future invitations of a public nature.

From there they went to Washington where Dickens saw congress in session and had a very low-key meeting with President John Tyler. During an excursion south to Richmond, Virginia, his increasing disillusionment with America was intensified by the shock and disgust he experienced at seeing slavery at first hand.

This is not the Republic of my imagination. I infinitely prefer a liberal Monarchy—even with its sickening accompaniments of Court Circulars … to such a Government as this ' Letters , 3.

The travellers proceeded by rail, stagecoach, and disconcertingly unhygienic canal boat to Pittsburgh, then by steamboat down the Ohio to Cincinnati, thence to Louisville and Cairo the horrible ' Eden ' of Martin Chuzzlewit , and then up the Mississippi which Dickens thought ' the beastliest river in the world ' Forster , to St Louis. The falls impressed Dickens profoundly. He wrote of them, ' It would be hard for a man to stand nearer to God than he does here ' and expressed a belief that the spirit of Mary Hogarth had ' been there many times, I doubt not, since her sweet face faded from my earthly sight ' Forster , There followed a four-week tour in Canada, where Dickens felt considerably more at home than in America.

He visited Toronto, Kingston, Montreal, and Quebec, and in Montreal took great delight in organizing, and participating in, some elaborate amateur theatricals involving the officers of the local garrison. Catherine also took a part and, Dickens wrote to Forster , acted ' devilish well, I assure you! By now, however, both Dickens and Catherine were desperately homesick. She had proved herself, Dickens told Forster , ' a most admirable traveller in every respect … has always accommodated herself, well and cheerfully, to everything … and proved herself perfectly game ' ibid.

The travellers returned to New York and, after a final expedition to see a Shaker village in Lebanon and to West Point, happily embarked on 7 June on a sailing packet they had had enough of steamships , the George Washington.

They landed at Liverpool on 29 June and went straight on to London for an ecstatic reunion with the children. Hardly less joyous were Dickens's reunions with his friends Forster , Macready , Maclise , Stanfield , and others but he soon had to buckle down to the writing of his promised American travel book.

The furore over international copyright continued, fed by a circular letter Dickens wrote on the topic on 7 July which got into American newspapers alongside a forged letter in which he was maliciously represented as branding America a country of gross manners and squalid money-making. There was copious and vehement editorializing about this seemingly clear evidence of Dickens's snobbishness and ingratitude.

Against this background he wrote his promised travel book for Chapman and Hall , American Notes, for General Circulation 2 vols. In it Dickens praised many of America's public institutions but condemned the national worship of ' smartness ' that is, sharp practice , and attacked particularly the hypocrisy and venality of the American press. He also commented unfavourably on many aspects of American social life, notably the widespread habit of spitting in public, and, predictably, denounced slavery at some length.

American Notes sold well but attracted little favourable comment in Britain Macaulay deemed it ' at once frivolous and dull '; Collins , Critical Heritage , and, unsurprisingly, it met with a very hostile reception in the American press. Meanwhile, Dickens , having enjoyed the usual summer sojourn with his family in Broadstairs now included as a permanent member of the family was his fifteen-year-old sister-in-law Georgina Hogarth , began turning his mind to the twenty-monthly-number novel he was contracted to write for Chapman and Hall.

Having an idea, in the event not followed up, that he might open the story on the coast of Cornwall, he made what was evidently an exceedingly jolly expedition to that county together with Forster , Maclise , and Stanfield from 27 October to 4 November. Besides these cardinal orientations, clear solar orientations have also been found, especially at the equinoctial declination.

Teacher's Manual. This document consists of two teaching manuals designed to accompany a commercially-available "multicultural, interdisciplinary video program," consisting of four still videotape programs 72 minutes, frames , one teaching poster, and these two manuals.

Penile representations in ancient Greek art. The presentation of the cult of phallus in ancient Greece and the artistic appearance of the phenomenon on vase figures and statues, as indicative of the significant role of the male genitalia in all fertility ceremonies. The examination of a great number of penile representations from the ancient Greek pottery and sculpture and the review of the ancient theater plays satiric dramas and comedies.

Phallus in artistic representation is connected either with gods of fertility, such as the goat-footed and horned Pan or the ugly dwarf Priapus or the semi-animal nailed figures Satyrs, devotees of the god Dionysus accompanying him in all ritual orgiastic celebrations. Phallus also symbolizes good luck, health and sexuality: people bear or wear artificial phalli exactly like the actors as part of their costume or carry huge penises during the festive ritual processions.

On the contrary, the Olympic gods or the ordinary mortals are not imaged ithyphallic; the ideal type of male beauty epitomized in classical sculpture, normally depicts genitals of average or less than average size. It is noteworthy that many of these images belong to athletes during or immediately after hard exercise with the penis shrunk. The normal size genitalia may have been simply a convention to distinguish normal people from the gods of sexuality and fertility, protectors of the reproductive process of Nature.

The representation of the over-sized and erected genitalia on vase figures or statues of ancient Greek art is related to fertility gods such as Priapus, Pan and Satyrs and there is strong evidence that imagination and legend were replacing the scientific achievements in the field of erectile function for many centuries.

This paper looks in particular at the special sin of hubris in ancient Greek religious thought. It examines what constitutes hubris and some cases in which hubris has been committed and punished. It demonstrates with examples that hubris is an unforgivable sin in ancient Greek religion and examines the reasons for this Figure 3. A prime knot Cases of Trephination in Ancient Greek Skulls.

Full Text Available Background: Trephination, or trepanning, is considered to be one of the most ancient surgical operations with an especially extensive geographical incidence, both in the New World and in the Old. In Europe, more than finds of trephination have been found, from Scandinavia to the Balkans. The technique of trephination or trepanning covers overall the last 10, years and exhibits great versatility and adjustability in the knowledge, technical means, therapeutic needs, prejudices and social standards of each period and of each population group.

Hippocrates was the one to classify for the first time the kinds of cranial fractures and define the conditions and circumstances for carrying out a trepanning. Aim: The present research aims to investigate the Greek cranial trephinations on sculls from the collection of the Anthropological Museum of the Medical School of Athens that come from archaeological excavations.

Method: Skulls were examined by macroscopic observation with reflective light. Furthermore, radiographic representation of the skulls was used. Results: The anthropological researches and the studies of anthropological skeleton remains that came out during archaeological excavations from different eras and areas have given information about the medical practices in the very important geographic area of Greece and in particular, we referred to cases of Greek trephinations.

Astrology in Ancient Greek and Roman Culture. This article deals with astrology in Greek and Roman culture. It considers astrology's theoretical background, technical basis, interpretative conventions, social functions, religious and political uses, and theory of fate, as well as critiques of it. Astrology is the name given to a series of diverse practices based in the idea that the stars, planets, and other celestial phenomena possess significance and meaning for events on Earth.

It assumes a link between Earth and sky in which all existence—spiritual, psychological, and physical—is interconnected. Most premodern cultures practiced a form of astrology. A particularly complex variety of it evolved in Mesopotamia in the first and second millennia BCE from where it was imported into the Hellenistic world from the early 4th century BCE onward.

There it became attached to three philosophical schools: those pioneered by Plato, Aristotle, and the Stoics, all of which shared the assumption that the cosmos is a single, living, integrated whole. Hellenistic astrology also drew on Egyptian temple culture, especially the belief that the soul could ascend to the stars.

By the 1st century CE the belief in the close link between humanity and the stars had become democratized and diversified into a series of practices and schools of thought that ranged across Greek and Roman culture.

It was practiced at the imperial court and in the street. It could be used to predict individual destiny, avert undesirable events, and arrange auspicious moments to launch new enterprises. It could advise on financial fortunes or the condition of one's soul.

It was conceived of as natural science and justified by physical influences, or considered to be divination, concerned with communication with the gods and goddesses. In some versions the planets were neither influences nor causes of events on Earth, but timing devices, which indicated the ebb and flow of human affairs, like the hands on a modern clock.

Astrology had a radical view of. Doxiadis and addresses the novelty of its methodological approach to the study of classical urbanism. With the AGC project, Doxiadis launched a comprehensive study of the ancient Greek built environment to provide an overview of the factors involved in its shaping. The project produced 24 published volumes — the first two laying out the historical and methodological parameters of the ensuing 22 monographs with case studies — as well as 12 unpublished manuscripts, and through international conferences initiated a wider dialogue on ancient cities beyond the classical Greek world.

It was the first interdisciplinary study that attempted to tackle the environmental factors, together with the social and economic ones, underpinning the creation, development and operation of ancient Greek cities. His purpose was to identify the urban planning principles of ancient Greek settlements in order to employ them in his projects.

Most of the terminology in medicine originates from Greek or Latin, revealing the impact of the ancient Greeks on modern medicine. However, the literature on the etymology of Greek words used routinely in medical practice is sparse. We provide a short guide to the etymology and meaning of Greek words currently used in the field of hepatopancreatobiliary HPB anatomy and surgery.

Focusing on HPB medical literature, the etymology and origin of Greek words including suffixes and prefixes are shown and analyzed. For example, anatomy anatomia is a Greek word derived from the prefix ana- on, upon and the suffix -tomy from the verb temno meaning to cut. Surgery, however, is not a Greek word. The corresponding Greek word is chirourgiki derived from cheir hand and ergon action, work meaning the action made by hands.

Understanding the root of Greek terminology leads to an accurate, precise and comprehensive scientific medical language, reflecting the need for a universal medical language as a standardized means of communication within the health care sector. Examines the distribution of clause types in ancient Greek during the Homeric pre B. Doctors in ancient Greek and Roman rhetorical education.

This article collects and examines all references to doctors in rhetorical exercises used in ancient Greek and Roman schools in the Roman Empire.

While doctors are sometimes portrayed positively as philanthropic, expert practitioners of their divinely sanctioned art, they are more often depicted as facing charges for poisoning their patients. Acoustics of ancient Greek and Roman theaters in use today. In the Mediteranan area a large number of open, ancient Greek and Roman theatres are still today facing a busy schedule of performances including both classical and contemporary works of dance, drama, concerts, and opera.

On the acoustics of ancient Greek and Roman theaters. The interplay of architecture and acoustics is remarkable in ancient Greek and Roman theaters. Frequently they are nowadays lively performance spaces and the knowledge of the sound field inside them is still an issue of relevant importance. Even if the transition from Greek to Roman theaters can be described with a great architectural detail, a comprehensive and objective approach to the two types of spaces from the acoustical point of view is available at present only as a computer model study [P.

Chourmouziadou and J. Kang, "Acoustic evolution of ancient Greek and Roman theaters," Appl. This work addresses the same topic from the experimental point of view, and its aim is to provide a basis to the acoustical evolution from Greek to Roman theater design.

First, by means of in situ and scale model measurements, the most important features of the sound field in ancient theaters are clarified and discussed.

Then it has been possible to match quantitatively the role of some remarkable architectural design variables with acoustics, and it is seen how this criterion can be used effectively to define different groups of ancient theaters. Finally some more specific wave phenomena are addressed and discussed.

Changing the Topic. Ancient Greek , topics can be expressed as intra-clausal constituents but they can also precede or follow the main clause as extra-clausal constituents. Together, these various topic expressions constitute a coherent system of complementary pragmatic functions.

For a comprehensive account of topic. Caesarean section in Ancient Greek mythology. The narrative of caesarean birth appears on several occasions in Greek mythology: in the birth of Dionysus is the God of the grape harvest and winemaking and wine; in the birth of Asclepius the God of medicine and healing; and in the birth of Adonis the God of beauty and desire. It is possible, however not obligatory, that it was not solely a fantasy but also reflected a contemporary medical practice.

An ancient greek pain remedy for athletes. In a time when the Olympic games have recently returned to their homeland, we examine the potential efficacy of this ancient remedy in terms Uxoricide in pregnancy: ancient Greek domestic violence in evolutionary perspective.

Previous studies of ancient Greek examples of uxoricide in pregnancy have concluded that the theme is used to suggest tyrannical abuse of power and that the violence is a product of the patriarchal nature of ancient society.

This article uses evolutionary analyses of violence during pregnancy to argue that the themes of sexual jealousy and uncertainty over paternity are as crucial as the theme of power to an understanding of these examples and that the examples can be seen as typical instances of spousal abuse as it occurs in all types of society.

The breast: from Ancient Greek myths to Hippocrates and Galen. This is a historical article about Ancient Greek literature from mythological times until the first centuries AD with regard to the female breast. We endeavoured to collect several elegant narratives on the topic as well as to explore the knowledge of Ancient Greek doctors on the role, physiology and pathology of breast and the treatment of its diseases. We may conclude that some of today's medical knowledge or practice regarding the breast was also known in the historical period.

Uterine cancer in the writings of ancient Greek physicians. In this article, we present the views on uterine cancer of the ancient Greek physicians. We emphasize on uterine's cancer aetiology according to the dominant in antiquity humoural theory, on its surgical treatment suggested by Soranus of Ephesus, and in the vivid description provided by Aretaeus of Cappadocia. During that period, uterine cancer was considered as an incurable and painful malignancy and its approach was mainly palliative.

Mental health and sexual activity according to ancient Greek physicians. The ancient Greek physicians have not failed in their studies to indicate the beneficial role of sexual activity in human health. They acknowledged that sex helps to maintain mental balance.

Very interesting is their observation that sex may help mental patients to recover. Nevertheless they stressed emphatically that sex is beneficial only when there is a measure in it, so they believed that sexual abstinence or excessive sexual activity affect negatively the mental and physical health of man. Ancient Greek physicians reached this conclusion by empirical observation. They tried to justify the mental imbalance, as the potential physical problems, which probably will be listed today in the psychosomatic manifestations, of people with long-term sexual abstinence or hyperactivity, based on the theory of humors which was the main methodological tool of ancient Greek medicine.

Their fundamental idea was that the four humors of the body blood, phlegm, yellow and black bile should be in balance. Therefore they believed that the loss and the exchange of bodily fluids during sex help body's humors to maintain their equilibrium which in turn will form the basis for the physical and mental health. Although in ancient medical texts the irrationality presented by people in the aforementioned conditions was not attributed in any of the major mental illnesses recognized in antiquity, as mania, melancholy and phrenitis, our belief is that their behavior is more suited to the characteristics of melancholy, while according to modern medicine it should be classified in the depressive disorders.

We have come to this conclusion, because common characteristics of people who either did not have sexual life or was overactive, was sadness, lack of interest and hope, as well as paranoid thinking that can reach up to suicide.

Regarding the psychosomatic problems, which could occur in these people, they were determined by the ancient Greek physicians in the following; continuous headaches. Suicidal behaviour in the ancient Greek and Roman world. We attempt to present and analyze suicidal behaviour in the ancient Greek and Roman world. Drawing information from ancient Greek and Latin sources History, Philosophy, Medicine, Literature, Visual Arts we aim to point out psychological and social aspects of suicidal behaviour in antiquity.

The shocking exposition of suicides reveals the zeitgeist of each era and illustrates the prevailing concepts. Social and legal reactions appear ambivalent, as they can oscillate from acceptance and interpretation of the act to punishment.

In the history of these attitudes, we can observe continuities and breaches, reserving a special place in cases of mental disease. The delayed emergence of a generally accepted term for the voluntary exit from life the term suicidium established during the 17th century , is connected to reactions triggered by the act of suicide than to the frequency and the extent of the phenomenon. The social environment of the person, who voluntary ends his life usually dictates the behaviour and historical evidence confirms the phenomenon.

All rights reserved. Shaping the pain: Ancient Greek lament and its therapeutic aspect? Full Text Available In this paper, which is the first part of a wider research, I focus on different aspects of ancient Greek lament. One of its most important aspects is the therapeutic aspect: by verbalizing, revealing the pain and by sharing it with others, the pain itself is becoming more bearable both for the woman that laments and for the bereaved family.

Related to this therapeutic is the creative aspect of lament: the woman that mourns has to lament in order to make it easier for herself and others; but while lamenting, she is creating something. Deeply rooted in funeral ritual, a lament respects certain ritual rules, and yet it is a spontaneous expression of pain.

Examining these mutually dependent aspects of lament, I will turn attention to the position of lament in Greek rites and tragedy, that summit Greek art and literature.

Ritual lament within ancient tragedy is, as always when it comes to Greek culture, an inexhaustible topic. Although tragedy belongs to literary tradition, it is a trustworthy source for ancient Greek ritual practice; lament within tragedy is thus a ritual lament, and not only a literary one.

Characters of many tragedies will mention the therapeutic aspect of lament, examined in this paper: they consider tears, wails and words directed to the deceased as joyful service, enjoyment, music, song precious and indispensable. This paper has its supplement, shaping the pain in few case studies. The Greeks and the Utopia: an overview through ancient Greek Literature. From the archaic to the post-classic period, we find literary expressions of utopic thought in ancient Greek culture.

Such expressions constitute the basis of the modern Utopia and Utopianism with their positive and negative implications. This essay takes a more detailed look at the work of Aristophanes, considered one of the greatest Greek playwrights, and inquires whether his comedies can be considered utopias. Full Text Available Background: In the pre-Hellenistic period, the concept of medicine was not well-defined. Usually, a disease was considered as a divine punishment and its treatment was devolved to the priests who asked for healing from the divinities.

The only job that could be compared to medical practice was a kind of itinerant medicine, derived from the Egyptian therapeutic tradition based only on practical experience and performed by people that knew a number of remedies, mostly vegetable, but without any theoretical bases about the possible mechanisms of action. Opinions about the human nature naturalistic thinking and the origin of the illness and heal were the basis of Greek medicine practiced by ancient priests of Asclepius.

This close relationship between philosophy and medicine is confirmed by the Greek physician Galen in the era of the Roman Empire. Methods: Philosophical thought looked for world knowledge starting from mathematics, physics, astronomy, chemistry, medicine, psychology, metaphysics, sociology, and ethics. Many physicians were philosophers, as confirmed by their views of life, such as Hippocrates of Cos, Aristotle hailed as the father of comparative anatomy and physiology, Pythagoras of Samos, Alcmaeon of Croton, Empedocles, Praxagoras, Erasistratus, Galen, and others, including Asclepiades of Bithynia atomists affinity.

Asclepiades, a Greek physician born in Prusa, studied in Athens and Alexandria. Background: In the pre-Hellenistic period, the concept of medicine was not well-defined. Many physicians were philosophers, as confirmed by their views of life, such as Hippocrates of Cos, Aristotle hailed as the father of comparative anatomy and physiology , Pythagoras of Samos, Alcmaeon of Croton, Empedocles, Praxagoras, Erasistratus, Galen, and others, including Asclepiades of Bithynia atomists affinity.

We must keep in mind that, according to the ancient people, the physicians could not heal the patients without the aid of a "divine God" until medicine, thanks to the Hippocratic practice, became more independent from the supernatural, and contemporary, ethical, and professional. His thought was influenced by Democritus' theories, refusing extensively the Hippocratic ideas that.

This paper will give a short overview of use of COMSOL Multiphysics for analyzing ancient Greek and Roman catapults with the main focus on the energy storing torsion springs. Catapults have been known and used in the Greek and Roman world from around BC and a fully standardized design for pow Describes the Perseus Project, an educational program utilizing computer technology to study ancient Greek civilization.

Including approximately 10 percent of all ancient literature and visual information on architecture, sculpture, ceramics, topography, and archaeology, the project spans a range of disciplines.

States that Perseus fuels student…. Medicine and psychiatry in Western culture: Ancient Greek myths and modern prejudices. While many ancient cultures have contributed to our current knowledge about medicine and the origins of psychiatry, the Ancient Greeks were among the best observers of feelings and moods patients expressed towards medicine and toward what today is referred to as 'psychopathology'. Myths and religious references were used to explain what was otherwise impossible to understand or be easily communicated.

Most ancient myths focus on ambiguous feelings patients may have had towards drugs, especially psychotropic ones. Interestingly, such prejudices are common even today.

Recalling ancient findings and descriptions made using myths could represent a valuable knowledge base for modern physicians, especially for psychiatrists and their patients, with the aim of better understanding each other and therefore achieving a better clinical outcome. This paper explores many human aspects and feelings towards doctors and their cures, referring to ancient myths and focusing on the perception of mental illness.

The Olympic Games as reflection conditions of development Ancient Greek civilization in Hellenism period. Full Text Available The author has realized the historical analysis of the Olympic Games at consideration the conditions of Ancient Greek civilization development in Hellenism period. Had presented the division into the periodization of Greek civilization development in which had learned a major changes in the world-view of Hellenes under the A.

Macedonian influence, notably: professionalization of sport and gradual fading of ideals, making basis of olympism, and also Christianity following late which results in the decline of the Olympic Games. Like their prehistoric ancestors, the people of early civilizations lived related to the supernatural. Facing life-threatening situations, such as illness and death, people of ancient civilizations resorted to divination, prophecy, or the oracle. Regarding the curative activities of the ancient Greek civilization, there was a period in which these processes were exclusively linked to a supernatural perspective of the origin of disease.

This stage of development of Greek healing practices corresponds to what might be called pre-Hippocratic Greek medicine. In ancient Greek civilization, myths exerted a strong influence on the concepts of disease and the healing processes. Although the first divine figure of Greek mythology related to medicine was Paeon, healing cults related to Apollo and Asclepius had a higher importance in tradition and Greek mythology.

The Apollonian divine healing consisted in the ability to eliminate chaos and keep away evil, while in the Asclepian perspective, the role of healer was linked to specific procedures. Personal and medical skills allowed Asclepius to surpass his father and achieve his final consecration as a god of medicine. Full Text Available Archaeologists have long wondered about the Temple of Abu Simbel: its location within the Nubian territory far from major Egyptian cities, and its unique design.

Utilizing the hermeneutic process of understanding the whole from the parts and then situating the whole within a bigger whole context, this study is a trial to arrive at a better interpretation of this monument.

Drawing on the characteristic analysis of the temple 's Genius Loci as developed by Norberg-Schulz, as well as on Heidegger's anticipatory fore-structures, the study goes on to show that both of the location and the unique structure of the temple were the outcome of political and conceptual aspects of the period, more than being a religious tradition.

Reaching this conclusion, another goal had been achieved, where the validity of hermeneutic analyses as a useful tool for discovering new dimensions about historical monuments and archaeological sites had been attested. Historical masonry heritages buildings existing in earthquake-prone countries have been affected many times by earthquakes in their long histories. The Parthenon, Athens in Greece is one of the most famous buildings, and it well known that the Parthenon was damaged seriously by earthquakes and especially human disasters.

Therefore, restoration works have been performed carefully since In addition, marble stone constructions, for example marble column, also suffered serious damage by two Space on the move: the travel of narratology to Ancient Greek lyric.

Narratology has initially been developed for the analysis of modern novels and has only recently been applied to other fields, for instance to.

This paper looks at the presentation of space in ancient Greek lyric poetry of the seventh through the fifth century BCE and its ideological function in the cultural-historical context.

The article explores aspects of the monetization of the Greek sanctuaries, more specifically how space was created to accommodate coins as objects and their use within the sacred sphere. Except in a limited number of cases, our understanding is still quite fragmented. Where most research has Sailors and sanctuaries of the ancient Greek world. Full Text Available The many small maritime sanctuaries where Greek sailors left offerings to the gods are much less well known than such great cult centres as Delphi and Olympia on the mainland.

Explores the healing processes at work in poetry therapy by examining two healing traditions that were contemporary in Athens of the fifth century B. Suggests that poetry therapy unites the powerful healing forces inherent in these ancient Greek practices, which accounts for some of its…. The canonical opinion about the placement zrchitecture Greek temples is that they http architecture relig free fr ?difices php oriented east-west Dinsmoor Major exceptions, such as the temple of Apollo at Bassae which faces north-south, are always noted in the handbooks, but many other temples are scattered across the Greek landscape in a variety of orientations. Although no surviving ancient author ever discusses the criteria http architecture relig free fr ?difices php placing or orienting http architecture relig free fr ?difices phpwe may assume from scattered remarks that Greeks had reasons for http architecture relig free fr ?difices php the sites and orientations. 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