However, the rapper uses a stronger rhythm and faster speed. Some practice comes before you even open your mouth. Make speaking easier by learning the different forms of any words you learn. Knowing the correct way to use a word in any kind of sentence is important. This knowledge will help you while speaking. An even better idea to improve English is to learn word phrases, not just words.
Phrases and expressions can be helpful for sounding more natural when you speak. Learn how to say your most commonly used phrases and words in English. Knowing them in English will help you speak as well in English as you do in your native language. Are you learning English speaking for a specific reason?
For example, are you learning English so you can get a job in an English-speaking company? Before you go to a place where you have to speak English, you can practice what you might have to say. Answer the questions a waiter might ask you. Try talking about food and menus. You can be your best helper or your worst enemy when learning to speak fluently! Just relax! If you get stuck or confused, just take a big breath and start over.
Speak slower if you have to. Take time to pause and think about your next sentence. Let us now compare the two types of sentences: A I have been feeling well. As you know, 'n't' is the short form of 'not'.
Let us look at a few more examples of negative sentences. Turn the following sentences into the negative. What can I do for you? Over here, if you don't mind. We have an excellent range of shirts in terycot.
These striped ones are new arrivals. But nowadays. Are you sure, madam? I'm sure. Plus taxes. Would you like to try it on? Could you gift-wrap it? You see, it's a gift to my husband on his birthday! Later Here it is! I've stuck on it a little card saying 'Happy Birthday! Call again. If you are using the cassette, listen to the dialogue carefully two or three times.
Is the shop assistant a man or a woman? Who is it for? Is the customer happy? Note the vowel sound only in the first syllable of the second word. You must also have noticed that the letter r in all the above words is silent. The syllable containing the sound is put in italics if the word has more than one syllable.
Note carefully the pronunciations of these words: afternoon synthetics excellent arrivals nowadays fifteen birthday husband You must have noted that these words are said like this: after'noon synthetics 'excellent ar'rivals 'nowadays fif'teen 'birthday 'husband 3. Now write down the pronunciations of the remaining four words in 2 above in phonetic symbols. For help, you must consult 'Signs and Symbols' given at the beginning of this book. I'm I am they're they are don't do not Their pronunciations, given in phonetic symbols, are: aim 6ei3 daunt b.
Full form Contracted form Pronunciation you are you're jua we are we're wis does not doesn't 'dAznt did not didn't 'didnt V. She said: That's very kind of you, young man. But she was rather formal in doing so. She could have just said: Thank you! They are" neither very informal nor very formal. They can be used to thank strangers, and people who have helped you in an official capacity.
It is used mostly in writing. How do people accept thanks? Between close friends there is no need to say anything at all! But when you really want to say something, you can use one of the following expressions: a That's all right. This is an informal way of accepting thanks. These expressions can be used in most situations. These are slightly formal expressions.
Imagine that you are in the following situations. What wili you say to thank, or to accept thanks? You are writing a letter thanking him. Study the following questions. What's the collar-size, madam?
How much is it? Do you remember the questions we framed in Unit 1? They were: Can we start now? Will the boys leave soon? Compare the two types. A What can I do for you? B Can I help you? Question A starts with the word 'What'. Question B does not use any such word. Let us look at a few more questions of the A type. Where are you going? When are you leaving? How far is the place? Which is faster, the train or the bus? Who is your companion?
A part of the verb comes before the subject. Who or Which just takes the place of the subject. Roshan is my companion. Ask the questions that will get you the following answers. Begin the question with the words given in brackets.
We can start at 10 o'clock. What time? We can stay at the Taj. My uncle will give us the money. It will cost us a fortune! How much? We are going by train. Why don't we come to the market more often? I want to come here every day. Who stops you? You have nothing better to do. I didn't say I will come here every day; I said I want to come here. Let's quickly do the shopping and go home. The children must be getting impatient. We'll first buy toiletries and groceries and then go to the vegetable stall.
Let's go to the department store next door. Can you tell us where the groceries are? And the toiletries? And for the toiletries, just turn left and you walk right into them. Please make me the bill quickly. Here's the bill. Some of them are even rotten. You should've thrown them away. In fact, yesterday the wholesale market was closed, and so we couldn't bring in fresh supplies. The second half of the conversation takes place in one part of the market.
Where does it take place? Why doesn't she? Each department sells a different kind of goods, stale: not fresh IV. Play the conversation again and listen to it. The syllable containing the sound is put in italics, that is, in a slanting type if the word has more than one syllable.
You must also have noticed that the letter r is silent in all the above words. Listen to the conversation. Note carefully the pronunciations of these words: market enjoyable impatient groceries vegetable corridor wholesale yesterday Each of these words has more than one syllable.
You must have noted that these words are said like this: 'market enjoyable im'patient 'groceries 'vegetable corridor 'wholesale 'yesterday The vertical mark or stroke indicates that the following syllable is accented. Note the pronunciations, given in phonetic symbols, of the following words. Now write down the pronunciations of the remaining four words in 2 in phonetic symbols.
Listen once again to the conversation. At the market Janaki complained about the rotten vegetables. The clerk at the counter apologized. She said: Sorry, madam. When we have caused trouble to someone, we want to apologize to the person. The most common way of doing this is to say: I'm sorry. Let us study a few expressions that can be used for apologizing, a Sorry: This is very informal, and is used to apologize for small things, b I'mexpression This sorry: can be used in most situations.
I can't tell you how sorry I am. These are rather formal expressions of apology. What does one do when someone apologizes to him?
Normally, he accepts the apology and tells the person not to feel sorry about what s he has done. The following expressions are used to accept an apology.
Don't worry. Not to worry. Don't worry about it. That's all right. Forget it! What do you say in the following situations, in order to apologize or to accept an apology? You are writing a letter of apology to the librarian, d You knocked down an elderly lady, while your were riding a bicycle on a busy road, e A fellow passenger stepped on your toe in the bus and apologized to you. Study the following sentences. They are spoken by Janaki and Surendra in the market.
I don't find it a very enjoyable place. I didn't say I will come here every day. But that doesn't mean you should sell rotten vegetables. All the sentences above are 'negative' sentences. In Unit 2 At the Doctor's , we discussed one way of forming negatives.
The examples were: I haven't been feeling well lately. We aren't ready. They won't call us back. This can't be done easily. In these examples, we added not n't directly to the verbs. Positive Negative I have. I have not haven't. We are. We are not aren't. They will. They will not won't. This can. This cannot can't. We can add not n't directly to the verb, if the verb is one of the following. But look at the following sentences. I find it a very enjoyable place.
I said I would come here every day. But that means you should. The verbs in these sentences are: find, said and means. Look at the list of 'helping verbs' in the box above. Are these verbs 'helping verbs'?
No, they are not. So, we cannot add not n't directly to the verbs. What do we do, then, to form negatives? Positive Negative I find. I do not don't find. I said. I did not didn't say. We have used do, does and did, and added not to them. Study a few more examples: a. We know the answer. She knows how to swim. You tried very hard. You're late by three days. I'm afraid you'll have to pay the fine. I was sick and have not been able to come to college these four days.
You condone the delay under special circumstances, don't you? And my sickness is a special circumstance, isn't it? But you should talk to the librarian. My duty is just to charge the fine if it is due according to the rules. Meanwhile, please issue me with these two books. Oh, wait a minute. I want another book too. Let me go to the racks and find out that one also. Now please issue them.
And here also? In this book, one page is missing. It's page You can have a look. How callous! I must stamp page to indicate that page has been torn out.
Otherwise this may be blamed on you, or the next borrower after you. This expression shows surprise. The clerk is saying: "I'm surprised. What is the reason? Or is he only following the rules?
Do you like him? The syllable containing the sound is printed in italics if the word has more than one syllable. Note carefully the pronunciations of these words: library return afraid circumstances librarian another meanwhile necessary otherwise Each of these words has more than one syllable. One of the syllables in each word is accented, that is, emphasised or made prominent.
You must have noted that these words are said like this: 'library re'turn a'fraid 'circumstances li'brarian a'nother 'meanwhile 'necessary 'otherwise The vertical mark or stroke placed over each word means that the following syllable is accented. Now write down the pronunciations of the remaining words in Section 2 in phonetic symbols and say them correctly.
For help, you may consult your dictionary, and 'Signs and Symbols' given at the beginning of this book. Pay special attention to the pronunciations of the following expressions.
You have learnt the pronunciations of the following contracted forms in Units Say them aloud as many times as you can. I will don't do not isn't is not V. The student returned the books to the library three days late. The counter clerk told him: You'll have to pay the fine. You should talk to the librarian. I must stamp page He is also saying that it is his duty to stamp page Words like have to, should and must express necessity and obliga- tion.
Other expressions used for the purpose are: have got to, ought to, and need to. Let us study the different ways used to express obligation and necessity. This means: it's necessary for you to be careful. This means: It's necessary for me to.
I'm obliged to. We must get up early tomorrow. We had to start early yesterday. Needn't means: it is not necessary. You mustn't smoke in the cinema. These are my orders. You ought to look after your old parents.
It is your duty. You should take less sugar. That's the proper thing for you to do. There are some differences in their use, as you will have noticed in the above examples. Use: must, should, ought to, need, have to, have got to. So it is necessary for me to leave soon. You're obliged to report it to the police, d You are not allowed to take dogs inside the bus.
You can pay when the postman delivers the parcel. In the library, the counter clerk says the following sentences. This may be blamed on you. Suppose the clerk wants to say the opposites negatives of these sentences. What will he say? He will say: You are not aren't late.
You should not shouldn't talk. I must not mustn't stamp. This may not be blamed on you. You will have noticed that the negatives have been formed by adding not directly to the verbs. In Unit 4 we saw that this is possible only when the verb is one of the 'helping verbs'.
We listed 24 such helping verbs in that unit, see page 32 2. Helping verbs have many uses. One of them is in forming negatives, as we saw in 1 above, and in Unit 4. We saw this in Unit 1. The examples were: 1 You can weigh this letter. Let us summarize: If the verb is a helping verb, we can 1 form the negative by adding not directly to the verb, and 2 frame questions by inverting the subject-verb order.
Example: He will return the book. I've brought the suit-length with me. Here it is. I'd like a tight-fitting suit. It takes longer at this time of the year because of the holiday rush, you know. Would you prefer one inside pocket in the jacket, or two? Two on the left and one on the right. Will you call in for a fitting next Tuesday? Oh dear! I haven't asked you about your charges at all. Our prices are competitive, and here's the price list, sir. I think I'll go elsewhere.