Your name. To substitute sky for road produces a shock which changes sky into in- finity see page This is not Withenshawe. This is the unknown which utter blackness creates. Today the environment is fragmented into separate pieces: separate houses, separate trees, separate zones like a series of totally unrelated notes played with one finger on a piano.
The purpose of this book is to try to bring all the parts of the environment together into dramatic relationship so that the same notes are used but are arranged to form coherent chords and sequences. And whereas the whole of this book is in effect a series of examples of linking and joining, just here we are only considering the simplest forms, the floor, pedestrian ways and hazards. Buildings, rich in texture and colour, stand on the floor.
If the floor is a smooth and flat expanse of greyish tarmac then the buildings will re- main separate because the floor fails to intrigue the eye in the same way that the buildings do. One of the most powerful agents for unifying and joining the town is the floor, as these two pictures so effectively demonstrate. The trallic routes sweep along im- personally but the tenacious and light-hearted pedestrian network creates the human town. Sometimes brash and extrovert, it may syn- chronize with the great traffic routes or with shops and offices, at other times it may be withdrawn and leafy: but it must be a connected whole.
It: should be read from left to right. Hence the use of hazards. Our diagram shows four kinds of hazards, the railing, water, planting and change of level. All these permit visual access whilst denying physical access. Below is an example from the Festival of Britain, showing how water is used to per- suade people to pay for what they eat. CONTENT the categories In this third section of the casebook we are concerned with the intrinsic quality of the various subdivisions of the environment, and start with the great landscape categories of metro- polis, town, arcadia, park, industrial, arable and wild nature.
These are the traditional categories and there is no certainty that they will continue to exist in the way we know them. On the other hand whatever the future may hold, one thing appears to be certain and that is the principle of categorization; for without distinction between one thing and another all we get is a form of porridge which will maintain life only if one can refrain from vomiting it up.
At the present moment of change caused by indivi- dual transport and mass communica- tions, the old pattern is breaking down. City centres are dying because they are too densely built for car access, the necessity for people to be in one place in order to do business and trade is lessening due to the various means of communication. Levelling of incomes is breaking up the large country estates, which are being exploited for housing the in- creased and ever more comfortably placed common man.
This explosion resembles nothing so much as a disturbed ant-hill with brightly enamelled ants moving rapidly in all directions, toot-toot, pip-pip, hooray.
If there is plenty of this, the old in- grained laissez-faire form of expansion and exploitation causes little concern since the overall balance is still held. But once the hinterland is itself con- sumed then suddenly a new situation is created.
All is thrown back on it- self and the expansion of one category can only be achieved at the expense of another. In other words, free action comes to an end, and we are forced to regard the environment as a related complex of activities; just as the universal franchise forced politi- cians to regard society as a balance of relationships and not a system in which the privileged exploited the unwashed multitude.
We, in England at least, are thus forced into develop- ing the art of relationship in order to survive as a civilized country. Some of its benefits— and pitfalls — are shown in the next three pages. On the one side you have the roar and danger of lorries, on the other you have a secure and quite charming footpath commanding a pleasant view over the meadows.
Thus, both motorist and pedestrian are better off. It is akin to the pedestrian network in the town. The vital clue in the situation is the hedge — the barrier — which serves to disengage the two functions.
Now change the scale and move from the footpath to the great expanses of the landscape, as revealed in this air view of the Thames valley. If we compare the seventeenth and twentieth centuries, the most dramatic change is to be seen in the mobility of the individual. Instead of travel being itself laborious it is now a mere tediousness of getting on and off. The covering of distance is secon- dary to obtaining and vacating a seat. The old order achieved its typical pattern of compact cities and open country because of the tediousness of travel, which forced people to gravitate to centres.
Today just the opposite obtains and people cannot leave each other fast enough. We appear to be forsaking nodal points for a thinl y spread coast-to-coast continuity of people, food, power and entertain- ment; a universal wasteland. If every- one is leaping in different directions, then we simply mm the whole country into a chromium-plated chaos. But let us, for the sake of argument, postulate that a town shall have an edge and that at that edge the countryside shall begin.
Is there any reason why this should not be so? Man is liberated in space and is able to overcome the problem of distance. That being so, a town can have an edge, for if the planner puts down an obstacle it simply means that at that point everyone sudd enly starts leaping in the same direction; which turns chaos into an event. This is rather like creating huge hazards in order to bring clarity into the landscape.
It is not zoning. The unequivocal character of both is brought sharply together, there is no fluffing. On the one side the wind soughs through the trees and on the other the hollow tread of boots re- sounds on a stone pavement. The town turns in upon itself; it is enclosed and hollow in contrast to the exposure of nature. Below left is a scene in Coleshill which contains the same violence of contrast, this time between the pastoral and industrial.
This scene is a typical categorical landscape but the smaller picture is not, it demonstrates the hopeless mixture of elements which turns all into a dull chaos. Sometimes we get sics of all these conventions which get in between, which get in the wav, and we long for the direct contact of immediacy, whether it be the edge of waier or the edge of height. This quality of immediacy is implicit in what has been written before, the conception of categories and their inxtaposidon to give drama and clarity to the landscape, and it is also germane to what now follows, the consideration of thisness or uniqueness.
This wall of flint, for instance, has a typical texture and by white- washing it the pattern is given its most intense meaning as the sun illuminates it. We have only to compare this with the tarred section below to sec the difference. On top the delight and assertion, below negation and indifference.
The window of the string shop also displays this con- centration and single-mindedness which seems to sum up the quality of string-ness. That character may be rich and very variously expressed — secrecy, entanglement, exposure, illusion, even absence — is the lesson to be learnt from this section. Small elements like this seem to have a life of their own. W alls, which to the quick glance have no significance, come to life upon more study.
The example below, for instance, has been carefully and deliberately painted to bring out the quality of wall-ness. The errant meander of dots is simply an affirma- tion that the wall is alive, that it is a surface. In this sense the whole scene should gradually come to life. It is a very small selection and is only intended to stimulate the reader to discover and explore for himself. Here in Birmingham two worlds exist side by side: the busy shopping and traffic route full of bustle, which is carried by the bridge over the canal , whose basin is silent and deserted, a secret town.
But the qualify of in- tricacy absorbs the eye. It is" an extra dimension obtained through the knowledge and experience of true professionalism as opposed to the crudities of the amateur. Our example is a somewhat astonishing shop fascia with lettering which might be thought out of place in a modest street, but since it is an example of the metalworker's craft it retains the sense of propriety.
Pro- priety never seeks to siSfie, rather is it self-expression within a civilized framework. The lam p-post at St Neots and the stagshom seat in Somerset are long remembered, like burrs found on a jacket the week after a country walk. Dull green foliage and the dead white of the wooden edging. The opening leads only to an aware- ness of voices long since dead. The storms which have necessitated and shaped this con- struction recede so that we can walk with impunity, but this place really belongs to the sea.
The next phase is to bring together This and That to find out what emotions and dramatic situations can be liberated out of the various forms of relationship. The first example, illusion, is based on the bluff that This is That.
We know that it is in the nature of water to be level in repose and yet, by cunningly ramping the retaining walls of the pool, re- taining walls which, as everyone knows are always level, the illusion is created that the water is sloping. Levelness is sloping, This is That. Crude as these examples are and we could produce others even more banal they yet contain a grain of guidance for the designer. In preparation for the Festival of Britain I was asked to consider the treatment of Whitehall Court, a building which lay directly across the Thames from the main con- course of the exhibition.
This build- ing terminated in a great duster of towers, fleches, gables and it was, in fact, a romantic, heraldic structure. The problem lay in making this in- terpretation obvious and dear to all, and this I attempted to do by erect- ing many flags and banners amongst the intricacy of the roof, picking them out with floodlights and leaving the bottom of the building in dark- ness so that the whole heraldic silhouette floated above the river at the tell-tale Certain objects possess the quality of being evocative and absolutely unmistakable.
This boat, for instance, explains the region of which the particular view is only a part. The extension of this well-known fact in order to clarify or underline the character of different places could well be exploited further. This is That, can be seen in examples of animism, the suggestion that a door is a face and, more directly, that a window is a mouth, can sometimes induce a sense of strangeness but can be very annoy- ing when it occurs unwanted.
This lighthouse standing alone in the expanse of the shore has a Ben Nicholson base supporting inter- penetrating volumes. It is as though some influence descends out of the Newtonian order and vastness of the sky and imbues the landscape with its scale, detachment and austerity, rather as the appearance of the headmaster in a school class- room can change a chattering, rest- less and giggling group of jolly children into a serious and concen- trating silence.
This and That can co-exist. Ever since people got really serious about plan- ning one of the main endeavours has been to put people into sunny, healthy homes away from dirty, smelly and noisy industry. Whilst no one will seriously quarrel with this, the principle of segregation and zoning goes marching on, with the result that we are in danger of losing the great unities of social living. The West End gets more and more offices to the exclusion of theatres and houses, vast armies of people com- mute, people object to having a church or a pub built in their street because of the noise.
Some magis- trates even say you are breaking the law if you stand still on a pavement. Bur true living accepts the joys of togetherness along with the setbacks. On balance it is worth it.
The scene at Bankside on the Thames as it might be developed with residential development amongst the warehouses is a typical multiple use view 7 , whilst below, the whole attitude is summed up in the French illustrations, in which the ground is regarded as belonging to all: to the players of boules and also to the train when it wants it. For just as the interaction of Here and There produced a form of emotional tension, so the relation shi p ot This and That will produce its own form of drama which will exist inside the overall spatial framework.
This marriage of opposites, illustrated in the next nine pages, may be a matter of scale, distortion, tree planting or publicity, but it suc- ceeds because This is good for That. In Bath within the framework of the enclosure Victorian, Classical and Gothic buildings are grouped to- gether and produce a scene as natural and comfortable as a clubroom. Below in Oxford the mon umental Clarendon b uildin g shares the street with purely modest domestic build- ings.
We are perhaps too well used to this kind of effect in England but if you cover first one half of the scene with your hand and then the other half, something of the surprise of the situation will emerge. Below right, is shown the exact opposite of all this, the total segregation of one building from its surroundings. Scale is not size, it is the in- herent claim to size that the con- struction makes to the eye. By and large the two go hand in hand, a big building does have a big scale and a small building a small scale.
In the case of the office building, below right, we see how a big building is made to seem vaster by the extravagance of scale. This just about sums it up. Both wall and hut have their own scales intensified by being seen together, the big is bigger and the small smaller.
A s i m ilar situation arises in the drawing below of the proposals for Liverpool Cathedral precinct where the domestic and the monumental are juxtaposed- scale on plan Of special interest to the planner is the sense of scale in the question of town layout.
Methuen is, to my mind, of extreme importance to all in charge of new layouts. In short, it is well worth a visit. You can enjoy the green leaves and rest for a while in the pleasant company of the people of Chelsea. But when you try to find it on the map you begin to wonder. For where exactly is this park in your otherwise reliable arias of London, which is a large- scale affair in a bulky tome of 13 1 pages?
That is the entire park. The conception that trees were structures in just the same way as buildings led to pleaching and an architectural layout of planting, but today the tree is more usually accepted in its own right as a living organism which is pleased to dwell amongst us. In this way new r relationships are possible between our own organic architecture and the natural structure. The first example shows the volume created by the clump of trees: we all know the meaning of this, the sense of enclosure and space, a space that can be entered and left.
Here the house is situated inside this space with the result that a structural volume is created akin to the classical portico, left. The parallel of foliage and tracery in this Spanish scene, below, produces a momentary and transient synchroni- zation which asserts a community of interest beyond the normal and is to that extent remarkable. There is a whole field of study of the textures and habits of growth of trees which can be exploited. For just as trees have different characteristics, fasti - giate or drooping, geometric or fluffy, polished or velvet, so these qualities may be used in dramatic conjunction with buildings, either to extend the conception or to offset it as a foil.
In this Swedish example trees have been used as a sort of living wall- paper to decorate the vast geometry of the grain silos. The last example, and the most homely, shows the exterior decorator at work. The tree has been placed in the village centre in just the same way that a bowl of flowers is placed on the living-room table, and for the same reason, because it is green and fresh and a foil to the permanent structure.
In these two balconies at Cheltenham the slender and cursive ironwork is drawn on to the simple white walls creating a most precise and delicate foil, whilst the more sturdy serpent of the seat slides into supporting position like a satire on the rough utilitarianism of the boards. Ml publicity Publicity raises the temperature in the world of planning because there are two things concerned, first the question of propriety and second the vitality of the medium in the urban scene.
To those who hold architecture to be sacred our first illustration is anathema. Below, in the view of the dry centre, we hint at the kind of night- time development Piccadilly Circus, Times Square which has a surrealist drama of shapes, lights and move- ment in which the message sinks back under the free show, the evening-out sensation.
We could do without it and have a neat framework for the variations of publidtv. Of special interest today when the wild places of our countryside are being invaded by the constructions of man are these pictures which may help to underline the delicacy of the situa- tion. Our picture of the cliffs at Corsica is remarkable for the reason that the houses enter into the spirit, into the wildness of the scene by crowding up to the edge of the cliff, up to the danger point.
Gordon Cullen November Kuliah 7 - Surface Mining Terrace. Ivana Krajacic. Dipayan Bhowmik. Ukenderan Elan. Noseyo Netlabel. Bulbul Shukla. Anis Azman.
Yasmin Ciorabai. Oana Paval. Sebastian Comanescu. With the townscape, people can recognize an area both physically and emotionally. Townscape should be arranged as its effects are quite an impact on the development of a community that occupy the region. In addition the townscape the art of creating the environment that is important to a city. At last this book has pioneered the concept of townscape and has a major influence on architects, planners and others concerned with what cities should look like.
Key words: Townscape, urban, environment, physical, enclosure, community, development, planners, architects, colour, fabric, city, linkage, vision, place, content, functional tradition.
Related Papers. By Jagdeep Jutley. By Vladlena Mikul'chik. Urban design reader. It sought to bring a measure of order to bear where political will and commercial pressure had tended rather to pull in the opposite direction Gosling and Cullen's urban design study for the Isle of Dogs sought to establish a range of development options within a strong spatial and physical development Gosling has subsequently stated that urban design frameworks are the best way to weld together existing communities instead of allowing their destruction and believes this to be the primary goal in the reconstruction of declining inner cities in the post-industrial age.
But of course we all know it never will be. It smacks too much of planning and that went out with flared trousers didn't it? Gordon Cullen was perhaps one of the greatest and most misunderstood urban designers of this century. He never really got to build anything.
He has been a charming and humorous friend, with a wonderful family, an irascible and stubborn old man and a man who shared with me a passion for pubs in Wraysbury and northwards. It is for these reasons that David Price and I want to prepare a sixty year anthology of his work from the s onwards. With his death on 11 August this year it is timely to remember his contribution to the real business of urban design and particularly introduce some of his last works to his world-wide audience.
Little of this work has been published and it would be impossible in the limited space available to describe the projects in detail. However, as David Gosling has already mentioned, it his hoped that an anthology which does justice to him and his work will be available in the not-too-distant future. As real-life Readers will probably be familiar with the projects they added significant new study of the Isle of Dogs commissioned in dimensions to "Townscape" theory applied to by the London Docklands Development cities with both obvious and invisible Corporation and led by David Gosling.
I problems. Gordon used to call the process have a little further commentary to add to "Urban Psychiatry" which is a very adequate David's recollections of this project. Gordon's solution to this increased faced with the competition of dilemma was to produce a "precedent Edinburgh, only forty miles away. The network" which identified the critical places construction of the M8 motorway had which should, once developed according to divorced the western and northern districts his visual prescriptions, make three- from the centre and there was a fear that the dimensional sense with the sections between city centre would be sacrificed to a sprawl of the nodes naturally respecting them as they brown-field development.
Gordon's solution became built up. Unfortunately such a was to devise a programme of "implosion" sophisticated planning tool was beyond the initiated by raising the visual and spatial comprehension of the "market" and the magnetism of the centre to a point where it concept was never adopted. Large scale would become the only logical place to projects, such as Canary Wharf as we see it relocate and redevelop. Buchanan Street and today, were inadmissible at the time and it the Clyde were singled out for special would be interesting to observe how the attention and a series of special projects, visual structure Gordon invented might have when linked together, formed two major changed with prior knowledge of such an urban systems which intersected at St Above: Precedent Network for Isle of Dogs intention in the study.
He accepted it Enoch's. This was later identified as the site identifying places critical to Cullen's intellectually as development progressed but for the "Glasgow Tower" competition proposed strategy.
Gordon pointed out that this was not the only problem facing the city centre and so the brief was immediately expanded into an examination of the whole of the central area. Our two most radical suggestions were the extension of the railway station to provide a concourse directly on Union Street and the extension of the inner harbour to provide a site for the proposed Petrochemicals Museum.
As with Glasgow, our ambition was to locate as many dispersed activities appropriate to the city centre within it rather than on "soft" sites on its periphery. Only in this way would the critical mass required for true regeneration be achieved. At Stirling we were principally concerned with creating a powerful route from the castle to the Forth, which is presently completely cut off from the town centre but has remarkable development potential.
Traffic and transport were vital issues which had to be addressed in both circumstances and in Edinburgh the major subject of enquiry was the "Royal Mile", the spine of the Old Town. Although the street does lead from the castle to the palace it is really rather shabby and is choked with vehicles.
Our task was to suggest improvements which would transform it into one of the great linear urban experiences of Europe. With the benefit of the groundwork done for this study, we decided to develop the concepts further in order to enter the ideas competition for Waverley Station as a "long shot". Gordon's masterly argument caused him to win first prize and a degree of recognition in Scotland which had hardly been made public beforehand.
Gordon's enthusiasm for working in Scotland was immense. Born of parents from the Shetlands, his Celtic origins were unleashed in the course of the consultancies we undertook for the SDA with a passion and concern for the major cities of his native country.
However, Gordon never ignored England or Wales, even though he was their adopted son. Furthermore our major built projects in London allowed him to transform theory into practice.
The interaction of private and public space, the aspect and prospect of the dwellings and their wonderful location distilled these schemes into the essence of "Townscape" in new buildings. Having caught the attention of private clients with these projects in particular, Gordon and I were then asked to submit designs for many other urban design and Above: part of a architectural essays, including the site of St series of ideas for Mary Abbot's Hospital in Kensington and Cardiff the masterplan for the Greenwich Right: Cuba Street, Peninsula.
Gordon's talent for perception London Docklands simply got better with every project we were Bottom: Helsinki asked to undertake. They were often much younger than himself which says a great deal about his opinion of the profession in urban design - he was, and is, the pinnacle of the "peer group" and every one of those who had the fortune to cross his path personally will remember his ability to give kind and forceful encouragement simultaneously.
Many people think of Gordon only as a superlative draughtsman and forget that he represents the most influential source of urban design that the twentieth century has produced in the United Kingdom. Having had the unique privilege of ten years of his education, I would remind readers that Gordon's influence is much greater than is confined to the pages of "Townscape". It is up to us to develop and refine his theories as he wished. Prior to , the given in July.
It is perhaps true to say that preservation of green space relied on the few if any "golden ages" withstand close limited potential of public purchase and low scrutiny, even in the nostalgic hindsight of density zoning was the mechanism for one so closely involved. But, at a time attempting to control development. The Golden Age, such as it legislation" produced disappointing results was, however, was short-lived.
The that were a "tragedy". On the one hand the At the age of thirty, Shepheard had joined subsequent failures appear to Shepheard to system was less effective in practice than in the team of his godfather, Patrick have involved a combination of causes theory. There was, for example the failure to Abercrombie, working on his plan for including the undermining of some of its stem the intrusion of high rise buildings on London. A good part of the talk focused on main provisions by politicians and mistakes London's skyline, due in part to the this pivotal figure in the post-war town in vision by the planners themselves.
One of interference of the Government of the day, as planning movement. According to the keystones of the Act, the in the approval of the Hyde Park Hilton. Shepheard, Abercrombie had a real genius for simplifying complex problems so that Compensation and Betterment provision On the other hand, as argued by Walter Bor they could be easily explained and addressed. The British system inventive techniques of "presentation for down by the new government. Simple practical survey planning could only be effective with methods were used, including pacing out the respects, as Peter Shepheard admitted, planners of stature, as seat of the pants flying physical edge of Greater London in a three nevertheless had major negative in the Second World War was the preserve of week slog that left its imprint in the inner consequences for the urban environment.
This raised the question: where boundary of the subsequent Green Belt. Proposals for the transport system, for are the modern equivalents of Abercrombie The post-war planning movement was example, relied too heavily on ring roads, and Williams-Ellis? By implication, the portrayed in the historical context of a presaging the M25, but failing to address the answer seems to be that there is no place for philosophical lineage from Geddes, through importance of the larger network and of this type of integrated approach to planning Unwin and Parker to Clough Williams-Ellis public transport provision.
The plan was in the emaciated "must-do" local government and Abercrombie, and in contrast to the low based on forecasts that failed to predict both of today. As Jon Rowland pointed out, by density zoning and relative "laissez faire" of the post-war population boom and the vast comparison to the depth and scope of the inter-war period. The resulting urban increase in road traffic. Abercrombie's plan for London, today's local sprawl was the enemy of the new generation For Shepheard, the major new public authority UDPs are sad, two dimensional of planners, and the shift of perception that housing schemes brought good space and shadows.
The Golden Age of British Town came with the Second World War, ensured open space standards but the use of high rise Planning may be largely a myth but in Sir that their time had come. The war shook up for family accommodation was a "grotesque Peter's words, "local government decline in British social life, and profoundly changed mistake" for which architects like Gropius planning is sinful".
High rise, in Shepheard's awareness of the importance of agriculture. The practice was founded in by the team that produced the 'Traffic in Towns' study - still regarded as the fundamental work on the effects of the private car on our urban fabric and the need for improved public transport. Today the consultancy employs some seventy professional staff including town planners, urban designers, architects, market researchers and economists, as well as traffic and transport specialists.
Operating from UK offices in London, Stratford above and below Edinburgh, Bristol and Manchester as well as overseas, the consultancy offers comprehensive analysis and specialist services on all aspects of master planning from initial assessments to policy implementation. Our wide range of in-house skills ensures an innovative approach to all aspects of the development process.
Alternative scenarios were prepared to demonstrate the development potential of the Terminal hinterland with the aim of stimulating increased economic activity and associated social benefits.
OXFORD As part of a comprehensive Transport Feasibility Study for the City of Oxford, the urban design team worked closely with in- house traffic engineers to develop a series of proposals for permanent improvements in the pedestrian environment in the City Centre. Based on local public consultation undertaken by the consultants, a series of physical upgrading packages was prepared and costed, leading to an implementation strategy which is now underway on site. There have been few comparable opportunities since the British New Towns for fundamental master planning exercises on this scale that are then realised on site.
The project began with a series of broad development options testing different densities and land uses and led to detailed urban design guidelines, landscape proposals for the regional-scale Lagoon Park and financial feasibility assessments. After completing a series of pioneering low energy housing schemes in the s, our work is now concentrated in the fields of urban regeneration and environmental assessment.
Currently the practice is forty strong with offices in London and Brussels. Over the past five years ECD has built up a strong reputation in estate refurbishment, much of it involving resident participation in design and construction with residents in occupation.
These projects have often involved us in the preparation and submission of bids for Estate Action or City Challenge funding. Much of the estate was re-developed in the s but Above: Barkantine Estate showing new there are in addition buildings dating from architectural language applied to the s, 40s and 50s and the result is a buildings. Below and to right: Wornington Green The physical problems however were fairly Estate showing new entrance structures.
The solution has been to give the buildings a new suit of clothes to enter the 21st Century; new roofs and windows, insulated overcladding and affordable heating. This new architectural language is designed to reinforce the 'urban village' feel of the estate and to create a more unified and coherent visual environment.
The first phase of work is now complete and illustrates the dramatic transformation from a grim '60s maisonette block into a clean crisp piece of modern architecture.
ECD's brief was to consult with the residents and the Metropolitan Police and develop proposals to improve access and security. The solution has been to create seven new entrance halls together with new lifts, entry phone installations and restricted access to individual walkways. The entrances are located alongside existing staircase towers.
Their curved forms are intended to create some drama and excitement in the streetscape. The entrance halls are built in a pattern of obscure and translucent glass blocks within a steel grid framework and are designed to be illuminated at night. The original version, designed for new office developments has been immensely successful with over assessments now completed. Subsequent versions now cover existing occupied offices, retail superstores, industrial buildings and new housing.
Credits are awarded for which the new development has been measures which are better than normal sensitively inserted. In addition to the practice and an overall rating is then given; proposed new homes, some existing Fair, Good, Very Good or Excellent.
A new primary occupiers can measure that performance in school is also planned together with this area, as well as giving design community and leisure facilities. The professionals a specific environmental agenda development preserves the natural to work with. High standards of energy environmental aspects of their work.
The design of successful urban places is as dependent on the way buildings are grouped together and the design of the spaces between them as it is on the design of individual buildings, a fact as true for towns and cities as for housing develop- ments. What we recognise as urban space is generally characterised by largely continuous building forms which separate the public from the private realm. Two recent projects demonstrate these views.
The potential diversity of architectural design brought about by three developers each using their own architects to satisfy their perceived need to differentiate their products and satisfy a number of different market areas required both a comprehensive Master Plan and a foolproof Design Code if the overall coherence necessary to justify the use of the description 'Urban Village' was to be achieved.