Lichens have been used as biomonitors of atmospheric deposition, because these organisms encompass greater spatial detail than air monitoring stations and provide an integration of overall pollution. The actual pollutant concentrations were measured in the environment, from biomonitors organisms that integrate multi-pollutants , enabling interpolation and mapping of contaminant deposition within the region.
Thus, the TEQ-like index provides a spatial representation not from absolute accumulation of the different pollutants, but from the accumulation weighted by their relative risk. The assessment of environmental human exposure to multi-pollutants through atmospheric deposition may be applied to industries to improve mitigation processes or to health stakeholders to target populations for a comprehensive risk assessment, epidemiological studies, and health recommendations.
Adsorption of TCDD with 1-butylmethylimidazolium dicyanamide ionic liquid: a combined molecular dynamics simulation and quantum chemistry study. The effective abatement of flue gas emissions, especially polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins PCDDs and polychlorinated dibenzofurans PCDFs , is one of the challenging issues in the field of environmental science currently. However, the relevant mechanism at the molecular level still remains unclear.
The calculated interaction energy of the anion with TCDD molecule is two times more than that of the cation, implying that the IL anion dominates the interaction with TCDD molecules, while the cation plays a secondary role. Temporal trends in dioxins polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in Baltic herring Clupea harengus. It is unclear why concentrations in Baltic herring are not following the observed decreases in other environmental matrices.
Here, changes in long-term temporal trends in Baltic herring were examined. A number of biological variables were examined alongside the temporal trends to investigate whether fish biology e.
In the most recent 10 years of data, fewer significant decreases were seen overall. Intake estimates of dioxins and dioxin-like polychlorobiphenyls in the Italian general population from the results of official monitoring plans in food.
The most important route for human exposure to these substances is food consumption and, as a consequence, a progressive decrease of their dietary intake has been observed in the last decades. Most contributing food categories to the intake resulted fish, food of vegetable origin, and cheese.
A sensitivity analysis was also performed to calculate the target contamination levels able to keep the dietary exposure below the TDI. Computed target levels fall between P50 and P97 of the occurrence distribution of the main food groups, meaning that most of the Italian food production can be considered safe.
Fetal exposure markers of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs. Although the placenta acts as a barrier between the mother and the fetus, these contaminants transfer through the placenta exposing the fetus. Several studies have investigated placental transfer, but few have assessed the co-variation among these contaminants. Hierarchical cluster analysis followed by principal component analysis were used to assess the co-variation. Two stable clusters of dioxin-like PCBs were found in maternal and cord blood.
Apart from the dioxin-like PCBs, little co-variation existed among the studied contaminants. The five PCBs can be used as fetal exposure markers for dioxin and dioxin-like PCBs in maternal and cord blood respectively.
In cord tissue, more higher chlorinated dioxin-like PCBs need to be measured as well. The Scheldt estuary is historically a highly polluted river system.
While several studies have focused on contamination with metals, pesticides, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons PAHs and marker PolyChlorinated Biphenyls PCBs , no data are available concerning past contamination by dioxin-like compounds.
Dl-PCBs were relatively low in all samples. The Scheldt mouth and the Antwerp harbor yielded the highest BEQs and levels were higher in SPM than in sediment due to the higher organic carbon content in this fraction. This is the result of a strong decrease in emissions, however, large local variabilities in sediment concentration levels can still exist because of local variability in sedimentation, erosion rates and in organic carbon content.
Levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in placentas from the Spanish INMA birth cohort study.
Multivariable regression models were constructed. Mothers had a mean age at delivery of In comparison to the few previous studies in placenta, total TEQ levels were among the lowest recorded in comparable general populations.
Although placental concentrations cannot be considered wholly appropriate predictors for evaluating fetal exposure to these contaminants, they can provide a good indication of both maternal and infant prenatal and postnatal exposure and can be used as a proxy for fetal exposure.
However, the presence of other potential sources of pollution in the zone, such as traffic, forest fires, local industries, etc. Therefore, in a change in the monitoring program was implemented by collecting additional ambient air samples through active and passive sampling devices. In addition, a generalized increase of environmental metal levels with respect to our baseline study was not observed. Moreover, the modification of the surveillance program has proven to be successful. Assessing polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans in air across Latin American countries using polyurethane foam disk passive air samplers.
The air sampling network covers background, agricultural, rural, and urban sites. Samples have been collected over four consecutive periods of 6 months, which started in January [period 1 January to June , period 2 July to December , period 3 January to June , and period 4 July to January ]. Assessment of the local role of a steel making plant by POPs deposition measurements.
The influence of the plant was noticeable at two of the sampling sites. In order to find a better correlation between the deposition to soil and emissions from the plant, the congener distribution of PCBs was studied.
The PCB profiles observed at the three sites well reproduced the average profile found in samples of ash retained by the bag filter of the plant.
Thus the monitoring of PCB deposition is an interesting starting point to calibrate dispersion models to assess the impact of steel making activities. However, no comparisons of the results obtained by these three methods have been published analyzing identical replicates of purified sample extracts.
The quantitative performance was assessed and the effects of sample purification and data interpretation on the quality of the bioassay results were investigated. Furthermore, properly used, all of the bioanalytical techniques examined were found to be sufficiently sensitive, selective, and accurate to be used in connection with soil remediation activities when aiming at the remediation goal recommended by the U.
Environmental Protection Agency i. Dioxin- and POP-contaminated sites--contemporary and future relevance and challenges: overview on background, aims and scope of the series. Once they have been generated, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins PCDDs and dibenzofurans PCDFs and other persistent organic pollutants POPs can persist in soils and sediments and in waste repositories for periods extending from decades to centuries.
In , the US EPA concluded that contaminated sites and other reservoirs are likely to become the major source of contemporary pollution problems with these substances. This article provides an overview of the content of the articles comprising the series.
Additionally, it highlights the important conclusions that can be drawn from these examples. It also details the various strategies used to assess these historical legacies of contamination and the concepts developed, or which are under development, to effect their remediation. Selected cases from the approximately 70 contributions made to these sessions, together with some additional invited case studies are outlined together with the key issues they.
Catalytic combustion of volatile organic compounds. Despite the success of adsorption and thermal incineration of C VOC emissions, there is still a need for research on techniques which are both economically more favorable and actually destroy the pollutants rather than merely remove them for recycling elsewhere in the biosphere.
Different reactor geometries e. The conversion of C VOC by thermo-catalytic reactions is governed by both reaction kinetics and reaction equilibrium. Full conversion of all investigated VOC to CO2, Cl2, HCl and H2O is thermodynamically feasible within the range of experimental conditions used in this work degrees C, feed concentrations ppm. A first-order rate equation is proposed for the C VOC oxidation reactions. The apparent rate constant is a combination of reaction kinetics and mass transfer effects.
The oxidation efficiencies were measured with various C VOC in the temperature range of degrees C. Literature data for oxidation reactions in fixed beds and honeycomb reactors are included in the assessment. Mass transfer resistances are calculated and are generally negligible for fleece reactors and fixed pellet beds, but can be of importance for honeycomb monoliths. The experimental investigations demonstrate: i that the conversion of the hydrocarbons is.
Thematische Einheiten erweitern den Wissensstoff - u. In whole blood samples of 21 age matched male exposed individuals mean age: Moreover three indicator PCB congeners , and were measured in blood of 39 exposed mean age: Besides a health examination, biometric and demographic data, residential and occupational history, occupational exposures and working conditions were recorded using a standardized questionnaire. Median PCB levels for the indicator congeners , and were 0.
Recently, more frequent extreme weather events, such as storms and floods, have been projected to occur as a result of global warming. Extreme weather events have a documented impact on the remobilization and subsequent bioavailability of POPs.
During the winter northeast monsoon period, the temperature and relative humidity observed in northern Taiwan decreases sharply. Hence, the winter monsoon not only brings cold air but also transports air pollutants and dust over long distances from mainland China to Taiwan. Lulin and from 7. This study aimed at evaluating the potential impact of a cement plant after 4 years of the employment of alternative fuel.
Risks to human health were also assessed. In comparison with July , the increment was only statistically significant for As and Cd p 0. In air, levels were similar to those found in previous surveys. Environmental non-cancer and cancer risks were within the limits considered as acceptable by international standards.
Dioxins and PCBs in game animals: Interspecies comparison and related consumer exposure. Wild-living animals are vulnerable to the negative impacts of human activity.
Dioxins and PCBs enter the animal organisms through foraging. Due to the toxicological threat, much attention is paid to these compounds worldwide.
Dioxins and PCBs were found in specimens collected from all studied species, suggesting the presence of the test compounds in the environment of the animals. The highest concentrations were found in the livers of all animals. The regular consumption of muscle meat from game animals should not cause unacceptable dioxin intake above the Tolerable Weekly Intake TWI value for children and adults.
However, liver consumption should be avoided, especially by children and pregnant or lactating. Among the tasks included in the "Quality and safety of feeding fats obtained from co-products or by-products of the food chain" Project, supported by the European Union and included in the 6th Framework Program, a number of fats and oils collected as co- or by-products from the food chain were selected for the determination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins PCDDs , polychlorinated dibenzofurans PCDFs and 'dioxin-like' polychlorinated biphenyls DL-PCBs.
In the majority of the cases these samples are currently employed as feed ingredients. Nevertheless, additional fats, which are forbidden for feedstuff purposes were also considered in this study. In general terms, fats and oils were classified taking into account their nature and the processes applied to obtain these co- or by-products. Official Journal of the European Communities L32, ]. In a second group, fats and oils with a more complex composition obtained from different transformation processes or even mixtures of fats were considered; thus, acid oils from chemical refining, acid oils from physical refining, recycled cooking oils, oils extracted from exhausted bleaching earths, hydrogenated by-products, fatty acids calcium soaps and.
Distribution of persistent organic pollutants in serum, omental, and parietal adipose tissue of French women with deep infiltrating endometriosis and circulating versus stored ratio as new marker of exposure.
However, their contour in terms of considered exposure markers remains limited. The present study aimed to characterize the internal exposure levels of 78 persistent organic pollutants POPs, including dioxins, polychlorobiphenyls, brominated flame retardants and organochlorine pesticides in a set of adult French women 45 controls, 68 cases , and to characterize the distribution of these POPs within three biological compartments omental adipose tissue, parietal adipose tissue, and serum.
The same observation was made for individual targeted OCs compounds. These extended exposure data from deep infiltrating endometriosis patients are the first ones available for France and give a new insight about the equilibrium of chemicals between storage and circulating compartments that should be further considered as new marker. Prenatal exposure to these pollutants might influence fetal steroid hormone levels, which are thought to be related to sex-typical development and autistic traits.
Multiple regression analyses were conducted to estimate the associations between prenatal exposure and outcome variables. Dioxin, furan and PCB serum levels in a South African Tswana population: comparing the polluting effects of using different cooking and heating fuels.
This is the first South African study on dioxin levels in humans with more than participants. Serum was pooled according to fuel use, as well as to confounding factors such as gender and age. Solid-phase extraction was used to remove the target analytes from serum, after which the extracts were further refined automatically using a combination of multilayer sorbents.
Compound concentrations were determined by high-resolution mass spectrometry after high-resolution gas chromatography. Mean serum lipid content was determined enzymatically to be 5.
The use of the DR CALUX bioassay and indicator polychlorinated biphenyls for screening of elevated levels of dioxins and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in eel. This was, e. The relatively low sensitivity for mono-ortho PCB was overcome by the use of reference samples, as shown by the correlation of 0. The use for dioxins only requires a safe, and therefore relatively low, decision limit.
In practice, wild eel presents only a minor part of the eel consumed. POP emission inventories on different scales and their future trends. Persistent organic pollutants POPs are defined as organic substances that possess toxic characteristics; are persistent; bioaccumulate; are prone to long-range transboundary atmospheric transport and deposition; and are likely to cause significant adverse human health or environmental effects near to and distant from their sources.
To reduce these adverse effects and for monitoring the effectiveness of existing international agreements, esp. This presentation addresses emission inventories for POPs which are covered by existing protocols as well as candidate substances which are in focus for the revision of the international protocols.
For all considered substances emission inventories exist with different qualities, from preliminary estimates to more complete inventories. These inventories are based on different methodologies measurements, modelling, mass balance approaches, etc.
An overview will be given of the current state of the knowledge through a description of the main sources for the specific pollutants, the recent emission levels, a description of historical emission incl. Furthermore, recommendations to improve POP emission inventories as well as major obstacles to achieve these improvements will be given. A further focus of this presentation will be an overview of future trends of.
Dioxin-like pcb emissions from cement kilns during the use of alternative fuels. The substitution of combustion fuels in cement plants is increasing throughout many countries, and its individual performance is constantly assessed against strict regulatory standards.
For cement plants within Australia, normal operations remain to use petroleum coal as the dominate energy source at the precalciner, avoiding the opportunity to reduce carbon-based resources and pollutant emissions such as carbon dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, persistent organic pollutants whilst providing the necessary energy needs through resource recovery. This paper presents stack emission monitoring of health-critical dl-PCB dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyl congeners during the substitution of alternative fuels at ten Australian cement plants, and to distinguish statistical similarities between other key pollutants such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans PCDD-F and hydrogen halogens and amongst the fuels used.
Sampling of plant emissions was performed during normal operations as baseline trials and with the varied substitution rates of waste oil, solvents, chipped wood, refuge waste, carbon dust, shredded tyres and black sand as experimental trials. The findings showed waste co-incineration during cement operations does reduce health-critical congeners of dioxins and dl-PCBs whilst providing the necessary energy and calcination needs.
In several cases, an increased rate of substituted fuel also identified a consistent reduction to baseline dl-PCBs.
If only the local vegetables were consumed and other foods were acquired commercially, the total dietary intake for a general adult was 0. If all foods consumed including vegetables were from a commercial source, the total dietary intake was 0.
Levels and profiles of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofurans in raw and treated water from water treatment plants in Shenzhen, China. Laser decontamination and decomposition of PCB-containing paint. Decontamination of concrete surfaces contaminated with paint containing polychlorinated biphenyls is an elaborate and complex task that must be performed within the scope of nuclear power plant dismantling as well as conventional pollutant cleanup in buildings.
The state of the art is mechanical decontamination, which generates dust as well as secondary waste and is both dangerous and physically demanding. Moreover, the ablated PCB-containing paint has to be treated in a separate process step. Laser technology offers a multitude of possibilities for contactless surface treatment with no restoring forces and a high potential for automation.
An advanced experimental setup was developed for performing standard laser decontamination investigations on PCB-painted concrete surfaces. As tested with epoxy paints, a high-power diode laser with a laser power of 10 kW in continuous wave CW mode was implemented and resulted in decontamination of the concrete surfaces as well as significant PCB decomposition.
The experimental results showed PCB removal of A surface ablation rate of approx. Different e-waste recycling procedures may generate different congener profiles. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in surface dust at an E-waste processing site in Southeast China. Analyses of Determination of polychlorinated biphenyls and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans by pressurized liquid extraction and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry in street dust samples.
This report describes and validates a rapid approach to screening for the presence of polychlorinated biphenyls PCBs in street dust. Samples were collected by using a natural bristle brush and stainless steel scoops. Mass recovery of fine-particle sea sand a dust surrogate on asphalt and concrete surfaces was used as a criterion for the effectiveness of sampling.
Better recoveries of sea sand were achieved on concrete than on asphalt surfaces. Toluene was used as the extraction solvent in both cases.
During this study, a combination of toluene and PLE achieved better extraction efficiencies than Soxhlet extraction. Docdiv vademecum Related Papers. By Albert Legrand Same Ekobo. Lascoumes, F. Varone, en collaboration avec X. Pons dir. En France, le parquet a le monopole des poursuites. La France compte 3 procureurs pour La France compte 9,1 juges professionnels pour Le Administratif, Fasc. Enderlin et J. Justice administrative, Fasc. L CJA.
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Un filtrage des plaintes existe. Loi du 13 juill. En outre, les magistrats ne peuvent exercer certaines professions avocat, notaire, huissier de justice, administrateur judiciaire ou mandataire-liquidateur, etc. CE, ass. Incriminations, op. Sur ce point, voir le rapport de TI-France sur les moyens de la justice, juin , p.
Par ex. CE, 28 mai Barel, Rec. CE , p. CE, 1 oct. CEDH, gde ch. CE, 22 nov. CE, 10 juin , R. Selon L. Fonctions publiques, fasc. Adde Ord. Droit administratif, fasc. En outre, depuis. Adde la circ. Selon O. What does a comparison of the laws and approaches across different lands reveal?
These enriching national and international perspectives highlight the need for more creative, concrete and coordinated means of enforcement to ensure the effectiveness of anti-discrimination law, regardless of the legal tradition concerned, but in light of these traditions. Readers will find each nation remarkable, and learn something new and interesting from each report.
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