By , the US had withdrawn from the Vietnam War. The Soviet and other Eastern Bloc economies continued to stagnate. Worldwide inflation occurred following the oil crisis. Part of a series on the History of the Cold War. Cold War politics were radically affected by decolonization in Africa, Asia, and to a limited extent, Latin America as well. The economic needs of emerging Third World states made them vulnerable to foreign influence and pressure.
Western fears of a conventional war with the communist bloc over the colonies soon shifted into fears of communist subversion and infiltration by proxy. As pressure for decolonization mounted, the departing colonial regimes attempted to transfer power to moderate and stable local governments committed to continued economic and political ties with the West. Some developing countries devised a strategy that turned the Cold War into what they called "creative confrontation" — playing off the Cold War participants to their own advantage while maintaining non-aligned status.
The diplomatic policy of non-alignment regarded the Cold War as a tragic and frustrating facet of international affairs, obstructing the overriding task of consolidating fledgling states and their attempts to end economic backwardness, poverty, and disease. Non-alignment held that peaceful coexistence with the first-world and second-world nations was both preferable and possible.
India 's Jawaharlal Nehru saw neutralism as a means of forging a "third force" among non-aligned nations, much as France 's Charles de Gaulle attempted to do in Europe in the s.
The Egyptian leader Gamal Abdel Nasser manoeuvres between the blocs in pursuit of his goals was one example of this. The first such effort, the Asian Relations Conference , held in New Delhi in , pledged support for all national movements against colonial rule and explored the basic problems of Asian peoples.
Perhaps the most famous Third World conclave was the Bandung Conference of African and Asian nations in to discuss mutual interests and strategy, which ultimately led to the establishment of the Non-Aligned Movement in The conference was attended by twenty-nine countries representing more than half the population of the world.
As at New Delhi, anti-imperialism , economic development, and cultural cooperation were the principal topics. There was a strong push in the Third World to secure a voice in the councils of nations, especially the United Nations , and to receive recognition of their new sovereign status.
Representatives of these new states were also extremely sensitive to slights and discriminations, particularly if they were based on race. Seniavskaia, Aleksandr S. Suri, Jeremi. Walker, J. Haines and J. Samuel Walker, eds. Westad, Odd Arne.
Westad, Arne Odd, ed. Lloyd C. Gardner ed. Cold War. Arms race Nuclear arms race Space Race. Gar Alperovitz Thomas A.
Cull Willem Drees Robert D. Matlock Jr. Thomas J. Painter William B. Pickett Ronald E. New York: Pearson Longman, P Gerald Hughes Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists , 27 July Wittner Belmonte, Voir Laura A. Brooks, Jeffrey. Thank You, Comrade Stalin! Gumbert, Heather.
British Fiction and the Cold War. Palgrave Macmillan. Hendershot, Cynthia Popular Press. Hixson, Walter L. Cambridge: Harvard University Press Jones, Harriet. Marwick, Arthur. Orwell, George. Public opinion in Australia was intensely hostile to Japan after its wartime atrocities, but Japan was now an ally in the Cold War, so Australia's accepted the very generous soft peace treaty with Japan in Instead of worrying about a resurgent Japan, Australia now worried more about a possible Chinese threat.
Following decades of struggle, in the Chinese Communists under Mao Zedong defeated Chiang Kai-shek 's Nationalist armies and took control of the mainland. The Nationalist leaders and much of China's upper class fled to Taiwan where they had American protection. Stalin had long supported Chiang Kai-shek, while also giving some help to the Communists. The United States had tried in — to bring the Nationalists and Communists together in a coalition, but had no success.
The conflict was not therefore part of the Cold War until — The two set up rival communist organizations in countries across the world. France for many years had been dealing with a nationalist insurgency in Vietnam in which communists, led by Ho Chi Minh , played a prominent leadership role. In , Mao's Communists took control of the north side of the China-Vietnam border, and began supporting the insurgents, especially by providing sanctuary from French attacks.
Mark Lawrence and Frederik Logevall point out that "resurgent French colonialism became inextricably intertwined with Cold War tensions, especially in the years after The political situation in Iran was a flashpoint between the major players in —46, with the Soviet Union sponsoring two breakaway provinces in northern Iran, adjacent to the Soviet Republic of Azerbaijan. Soviet troops were stationed in northwestern Iran during the war.
They not only refused to withdraw in but backed revolts that established short-lived, pro-Soviet separatist national states called the Azerbaijan People's Government and the Republic of Kurdistan. The issue was debated at the United Nations, and in Moscow abandoned its position, and the conflict was permanently resolved peacefully, with a pro-western government resuming control. Iran did not become a major battlefield of the Cold War, but it had its own history of confrontation with Britain and the United States.
The long-standing conflict between Arabs and Jews in the Mandatory Palestine region continued after , with Britain and in an increasingly impossible situation as the mandate holder. The Balfour Declaration of calling for a homeland for the Jews was supported in by both the Soviet Union and the United States. Both countries promptly Recognize the independent state of Israel in The Soviet Union later broke with Israel to support its Arab enemies. The region was more of an independent trouble zone rather than a playing field of the Cold War, and was not a precipitating factor in the Cold War.
By , Arab nationalism based in Egypt was a neutralizing force. The Soviet Union leaned increasingly toward Egypt. While most historians trace its origins to the period immediately following World War II, others argue that it began with the October Revolution in Russia in when the Bolsheviks took power. National Geographic. National Geographic Society.
Guardian News and Media Limited. Howard 1 August Reuters Commentary Wire. Retrieved 2 August Retrieved 16 April Retrieved 18 October The Washington Post.
How to reduce the temperature". Sociologist Immanuel Wallerstein expresses a less triumphalist view, arguing that the end of the Cold War is a prelude to the breakdown of Pax Americana. Some historians, including professor of history John Lewis Gaddis , argue that Reagan combined a policy of militancy and operational pragmatism to bring about the most significant improvement in Soviet-American relations since the end of World War II.
Space exploration has petered out in both the United States and Russia without the competitive pressure of the space race. Military decorations have become more common, as they were created, and bestowed, by the major powers during the near 50 years of undeclared hostilities. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Play media. Main article: Revolutions of Guide to Congress.
Retrieved They tried to keep up with the United States in military spending, but could not. In the Soviet war in Afghanistan starting in , the Soviet Union had a difficult time fighting resistance groups, some of them armed and trained by the United States.
In the late s the new Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev made an effort to make an ally of the United States to fix world problems caused by the war, with the ultimate aim of eliminating nuclear weapons completely. However, this did not take place because the President of the United States, Ronald Reagan , insisted on having a nuclear missile defense system. The people of the Soviet Union were divided on their feelings about this.
Some wanted President Gorbachev to fight harder to eliminate nuclear weapons, while others did not want him to be talking to the United States at all. These mixed feelings created an atmosphere of political in-fighting, and the people were no longer united behind one goal.
Gates Simon and Schuster. Government Printing Office. At the Yalta Conference of February , Roosevelt signed a separate deal with Stalin regarding Asia and refused to support Churchill on the issues of Poland and Reparations. At the Second Quebec Conference , a high-level military conference held in Quebec City, 12—16 September , Churchill and Roosevelt reached agreement on a number of matters, including a plan for Germany based on Henry Morgenthau Jr.
The memorandum drafted by Churchill provided for "eliminating the warmaking industries in the Ruhr and the Saar It directed the US forces of occupation to " The Soviet Union was not allowed to participate and the dispute led to heated correspondence between Franklin Roosevelt and Stalin.
Wolff and his forces were being considered to help implement Operation Unthinkable , a secret plan to invade the Soviet Union which Winston Churchill advocated during this period. Truman , who distrusted Stalin and turned for advice to an elite group of foreign policy intellectuals.
Both Churchill and Truman opposed, among other things, the Soviets' decision to prop up the Lublin government , the Soviet-controlled rival to the Polish government-in-exile in London, whose relations with the Soviets had been severed. In Germany and Austria , France, Britain, the Soviet Union and the United States established zones of occupation and a loose framework for parceled four-power control.
The Allied conference in San Francisco established the multi-national United Nations UN for the maintenance of world peace , but the enforcement capacity of its Security Council was effectively paralyzed by the ability of individual members to exercise veto power.
At the Potsdam Conference , which started in late July after Germany's surrender, serious differences emerged over the future development of Germany and the rest of Central and Eastern Europe.
The Americans and British refused to fix a dollar amount for reparations, but they permitted the Soviets to remove some industry from their zones. Stalin was aware that the Americans were working on the atomic bomb, and he reacted to the news calmly.
Shortly after the attacks, Stalin protested to US officials when Truman offered the Soviets little real influence in occupied Japan. That cannot be. Following the war, the United States and the United Kingdom used military forces in Greece and Korea to remove indigenous governments and forces seen as communist.
Under the leadership of Lyuh Woon-Hyung , working secretly during Japanese occupation, committees throughout Korea formed to coordinate transition to Korean independence.
Following Japanese surrender, on August 28, these committees formed the temporary national government of Korea, naming it the People's Republic of Korea PRK a couple of weeks later. The military governor Lieutenant-General John R. Hodge later said that "one of our missions was to break down this Communist government. S supported authoritarian South Korean governments, which reigned until the s. Central and Eastern European territories that the Soviet army liberated from Germany were added to the Eastern Bloc , pursuant to the Percentages Agreement between Churchill and Stalin.
The Soviet Union converted the territories it occupied into satellite states ,  such as:. The Soviet-style regimes that arose in the Bloc not only reproduced Soviet command economy , but also adopted the brutal methods employed by Joseph Stalin and the Soviet secret police in order to suppress both real and potential opposition. As part of consolidating Stalin's control over the Eastern Bloc, the People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs NKVD , led by Lavrentiy Beria , supervised the establishment of Soviet-style secret police systems in the Bloc that were supposed to crush anti-communist resistance.
British Prime Minister Winston Churchill was concerned that, given the enormous size of Soviet forces deployed in Europe at the end of the war, and the perception that Soviet leader Joseph Stalin was unreliable, there existed a Soviet threat to Western Europe.
In late February , George F. Kennan 's " Long Telegram " from Moscow to Washington helped to articulate the US government's increasingly hard line against the Soviets, which would become the basis for US strategy toward the Soviet Union for the duration of the Cold War. The Truman Administration was receptive to the telegram due to broken promises by Stalin concerning Europe and Iran.
A week later, on 13 March, Stalin responded vigorously to the speech, saying that Churchill could be compared to Hitler insofar as he advocated the racial superiority of English-speaking nations so that they could satisfy their hunger for world domination, and that such a declaration was "a call for war on the U. He argued that there was nothing surprising in "the fact that the Soviet Union, anxious for its future safety, [was] trying to see to it that governments loyal in their attitude to the Soviet Union should exist in these countries".
In September, the Soviet side produced the Novikov telegram, sent by the Soviet ambassador to the US but commissioned and "co-authored" by Vyacheslav Molotov ; it portrayed the US as being in the grip of monopoly capitalists who were building up military capability "to prepare the conditions for winning world supremacy in a new war".
Byrnes delivered a speech in Germany repudiating the Morgenthau Plan a proposal to partition and de-industrialize post-war Germany and warning the Soviets that the US intended to maintain a military presence in Europe indefinitely. By , US president Harry S. Truman was outraged by perceived resistance of the Soviet Union to American demands in Iran, Turkey, and Greece, as well as Soviet rejection of the Baruch Plan on nuclear weapons.
Enunciation of the Truman Doctrine marked the beginning of a US bipartisan defense and foreign policy consensus between Republicans and Democrats focused on containment and deterrence that weakened during and after the Vietnam War , but ultimately persisted thereafter. Other critiques of the consensus policy came from anti-Vietnam War activists , the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament , and the anti-nuclear movement.
In early , France, Britain and the United States unsuccessfully attempted to reach an agreement with the Soviet Union for a plan envisioning an economically self-sufficient Germany, including a detailed accounting of the industrial plants, goods and infrastructure already removed by the Soviets.
Later, the program led to the creation of the Organisation for European Economic Co-operation. The plan's aim was to rebuild the democratic and economic systems of Europe and to counter perceived threats to Europe's balance of power , such as communist parties seizing control through revolutions or elections.
These would become the main bureaucracies for US defense policy in the Cold War. Stalin believed that economic integration with the West would allow Eastern Bloc countries to escape Soviet control, and that the US was trying to buy a pro-US re-alignment of Europe. With the US assistance, the Greek military won its civil war. All major powers engaged in espionage, using a great variety of spies, double agents, and new technologies such as the tapping of telephone cables.
The East German Stasi , unlike the others, was primarily concerned with internal security, but its Main Directorate for Reconnaissance operated espionage activities around the world. So much top secret archival information has been released so that historian Raymond L. Garthoff concludes there probably was parity in the quantity and quality of secret information obtained by each side. In addition to usual espionage, the Western agencies paid special attention to debriefing Eastern Bloc defectors.
In September , the Soviets created Cominform , the purpose of which was to enforce orthodoxy within the international communist movement and tighten political control over Soviet satellites through coordination of communist parties in the Eastern Bloc.
The United States and Britain merged their western German occupation zones into "Bizonia" 1 January , later "Trizonia" with the addition of France's zone, April Shortly thereafter, Stalin instituted the Berlin Blockade 24 June — 12 May , one of the first major crises of the Cold War, preventing food, materials and supplies from arriving in West Berlin.
The Soviets mounted a public relations campaign against the policy change. Once again the East Berlin communists attempted to disrupt the Berlin municipal elections as they had done in the elections ,  which were held on 5 December and produced a turnout of In , Stalin repeatedly proposed a plan to unify East and West Germany under a single government chosen in elections supervised by the United Nations, if the new Germany were to stay out of Western military alliances, but this proposal was turned down by the Western powers.
Some sources dispute the sincerity of the proposal. Media in the Eastern Bloc was an organ of the state , completely reliant on and subservient to the communist party. Radio and television organizations were state-owned, while print media was usually owned by political organizations, mostly by the local communist party. American policymakers, including Kennan and John Foster Dulles , acknowledged that the Cold War was in its essence a war of ideas.
Moreover, his party was weakened during the war against Japan. Meanwhile, the communists told different groups, such as the peasants, exactly what they wanted to hear, and they cloaked themselves under the cover of Chinese nationalism. Confronted with the communist revolution in China and the end of the American atomic monopoly in , the Truman administration quickly moved to escalate and expand its containment doctrine. United States officials moved to expand this version of containment into Asia , Africa , and Latin America , in order to counter revolutionary nationalist movements, often led by communist parties financed by the USSR, fighting against the restoration of Europe's colonial empires in South-East Asia and elsewhere.
One of the more significant examples of the implementation of containment was US intervention in the Korean War. Stalin had been reluctant to support the invasion [G] but ultimately sent advisers. The US initially seemed to follow containment when it first entered the war.
This directed the action of the US to only push back North Korea across the 38th Parallel and restore South Korea's sovereignty, allowing North Korea's survival as a state. However, the success of the Inchon landing inspired the US and the United Nations to adopt a rollback strategy instead and to overthrow communist North Korea, thus allowing nationwide elections under U.
The Chinese, fearful of a possible US presence on their border or even an invasion by them, then sent in a large army and defeated the U. Truman publicly hinted that he might use his "ace in the hole" of the atomic bomb, but Mao was unmoved.
The Communists were later pushed to roughly around the original border, with minimal changes. After the Armistice was approved in July , Korean leader Kim Il Sung created a highly centralized, totalitarian dictatorship according his family unlimited power and generating a formidable cult of personality. In , changes in political leadership on both sides shifted the dynamic of the Cold War.
Eisenhower was inaugurated president that January.Part of a series on the History of the Cold War. The period is generally considered to span the Truman Doctrine to the dissolution of the Soviet Union. The term " cold " is used because there was cold war wikipedia the free encyclopedia large-scale fighting directly between the two superpowersbut they each supported major regional conflicts known wiikipedia proxy wars. The cold war wikipedia the free encyclopedia was based around the ideological and geopolitical struggle for global influence by the two powers, following their temporary alliance and victory against Nazi Germany in Aside from the nuclear arsenal development and conventional military deployment, the struggle for dominance was cold war wikipedia the free encyclopedia wae indirect means such as psychological warfarepropaganda campaigns, espionagefar-reaching embargoesrivalry at sports events and technological competitions such as the Space Race. The West was led by the United States as cold war wikipedia the free encyclopedia as the other First World nations cold war wikipedia the free encyclopedia the Western Bloc that were generally liberal democratic but tied fdee a network of authoritarian states, most of which were their former colonies. The US government supported right-wing governments and uprisings across the world, while the Soviet government funded communist parties and revolutions cold war wikipedia the free encyclopedia the world. As nearly all the colonial states achieved independence in the period —they became Third World battlefields in the Cold War. The United Cold war wikipedia the free encyclopedia created the NATO download free bird lynyrd skynyrd mp3 alliance in in the apprehension of a Soviet attack and termed their global policy against Soviet influence containment. Following the Cuban Missile Crisis, a new phase began that saw the Sino-Soviet split wkipedia China and the Soviet Union complicate relations within the Communist sphere, while US ally France began to demand greater autonomy of action. In the s—70s, an international peace movement took root among citizens around the world. Movements against nuclear arms testing and for nuclear disarmament took place, with large anti-war protests. The early s were another period of elevated tension. The United States increased diplomatic, military, and economic pressures on the Soviet Union, at a time when it was already suffering from economic stagnation. In the midsthe new Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev introduced the liberalizing reforms of glasnost "openness", c. Cold War. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Jump to navigation Jump to search. The Cold War was the tense relationship. Timeline of events in the Cold War. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Jump to navigation Jump to search. West and. Origins of the Cold War. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Jump to navigation Jump to search. West and. Cold War (–). From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Cold War (–). From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Jump to navigation Jump to search. Alliances in. Look up cold war in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. A cold war is a state of conflict between nations that does not involve direct military action but is Cold war (general term). From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Jump to navigation Jump to. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Jump to navigation Jump to search. Overview of and topical guide to the Cold War. The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to the Cold War: Cold War. Bibliography of the Cold War. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Jump to navigation Jump to search. The Cold War was reflected in culture through music, movies, books, television and other. Kuznick, Peter J. Aftonbladet in Swedish. It was heavily guarded to prevent people from escaping to the West. Whitfield, Stephen J. Olesen, Thorsten B. Best Foreign Film. Retrieved 9 January Powaski Yakov M. Sanders, Vivienne. Robb, Thomas K.