ccna todd lammle 7th edition pdf free download

ccna todd lammle 7th edition pdf free download

There are two advantages of using routers in your network: They can filter the network based on layer 3 Network layer information e. Unlike layer2 switches, which forward or filter frames, routers or layer 3 switches use logical addressing and provide what is called packet switching. Routerscan also provide packet filtering by using access lists, and when routers connect two or more networks together and use logical addressing IP orIPv6 , this is called an internetwork. Lastly, routers use a routing table map of the internetwork to make path selections and to forward packets toremote networks.

By default, switches break up collision domains. This is an Ethernet term used to describe a network scenario wherein one particular devicesends a packet on a network segment, forcing every other device on that same segment to pay attention to it.

If at the same time a different devicetries to transmit, leading to a collision, both devices must retransmit, one at a time. Not very efficient! This situation is typically found in a hubenvironment where each host segment connects to a hub that represents only one collision domain and only one broadcast domain. By contrast,each and every port on a switch represents its own collision domain.

Switches create separate collision domains but a single broadcast domain. Routers provide a separate broadcast domain for each interface. So what this means is that a switch is basically just a multiple-port bridge with more brainpower, right? Well, pretty much, but there aredifferences.

Switches do provide this function, but they do so with greatly enhanced management ability and features. Plus, most of the time,bridges only had 2 or 4 ports.

You would use a bridge in a network to reduce collisions within broadcast domains and to increase the number of collision domains in your network. Doing this provides more bandwidth for users. And keep in mind that using hubs in your network can contribute to congestion on your Ethernet network. As always, plan your network design carefully! Figure shows how a network would look with all these internetwork devices in place.

Remember that the router will not only break upbroadcast domains for every LAN interface, it will break up collision domains as well. Figure Internetworking devices When you looked at Figure , did you notice that the router is found at center stage and that it connects each physical network together? Wehave to use this layout because of the older technologies involved—bridges and hubs. The bridge breaks up collisiondomains, but all the hosts connected to both hubs are still crammed into the same broadcast domain.

Also, the bridge only created two collisiondomains, so each device connected to a hub is in the same collision domain as every other device connected to that same hub. Notice something else: The three hubs at the bottom that are connected also connect to the router, creating one collision domain and onebroadcast domain. This makes the bridged network look much better indeed! The best network connected to the router is the LAN switch network on the left. Because each port on that switch breaks up collisiondomains.

Do you remember why this can be a really bad thing? And if your broadcast domains are too large, the users have less bandwidth and arerequired to process more broadcasts, and network response time will slow to a level that could cause office riots. Once we have only switches in our network, things change a lot! Figure shows the network that is typically found today. But it isreally important to understand that even though you have a switched network, you still need a router or layer 3 switch to provide your inter-VLANcommunication, or internetworking.

LAN switches withrouters, correctly placed in the network, are the best network design. This book will help you understand the basics of routers and switches so you Looking at the figure, how many collision domains and broadcast domains are in this internetwork? Hopefully,you answered nine collision domains and three broadcast domains! The broadcast domains are definitely the easiest to see because only routersbreak up broadcast domains by default.

And since there are three connections, that gives you three broadcast domains. But do you see the ninecollision domains? The all-hub network is one collision domain; the bridge network equals three collisiondomains. Now, in Figure , each port on the switch is a separate collision domain and each VLAN is a separate broadcast domain.

But you still need arouter for routing between VLANs. How many collision domains do you see here? The boss comes to you and says that he got your requisition to buy all new switches and is not sure about approving the expense; do you really need it?

Well, if you can, absolutely! So do you need 1Gbps or better switch ports for all your users, servers, and other devices? Yes, you absolutely need new higher-end switches! With the new Windows networking stack and the IPv6 revolution shortly ahead of us, the server and hosts are no longer the bottlenecks of our internetworks.

Our routers and switches are! We need at a minimum gigabit to the desktop and on every router interface—10Gbps would be better, or even higher if you can afford it. So, go ahead! Put that requisition in to buy all new switches. Internetworking ModelsWhen networks first came into being, computers could typically communicate only with computers from the same manufacturer. The OSI model was meant to help vendors create interoperable network devices and software in the form of protocols so that different vendornetworks could work with each other.

The OSI model is the primary architectural model for networks. It describes how data and network information are communicated from anapplication on one computer through the network media to an application on another computer.

The OSI reference model breaks this approach intolayers. In the following section, I am going to explain the layered approach and how we can use this approach to help us troubleshoot our internetworks.

The Layered ApproachA reference model is a conceptual blueprint of how communications should take place. It addresses all the processes required for effectivecommunication and divides these processes into logical groupings called layers.

Think of it like this: You and some friends want to start a company. Ultimately, you might group these tasks intodepartments. Each of yourdepartments has its own unique tasks, keeping its staff members busy and requiring them to focus on only their own duties.

For things to run smoothly, the staff of eachdepartment will have to trust and rely heavily upon the others to do their jobs and competently handle their unique responsibilities. In your planningsessions, you would probably take notes, recording the entire process to facilitate later discussions about standards of operation that will serve asyour business blueprint, or reference model.

Once your business is launched, your department heads, each armed with the part of the blueprint relating to their own department, will need todevelop practical methods to implement their assigned tasks. These practical methods, or protocols, will need to be compiled into a standardoperating procedures manual and followed closely. Each of the various procedures in your manual will have been included for different reasons andhave varying degrees of importance and implementation. If you form a partnership or acquire another company, it will be imperative that itsbusiness protocols—its business blueprint—match yours or at least be compatible with it.

Similarly, software developers can use a reference model to understand computer communication processes and see what types of functionsneed to be accomplished on any one layer. Another layer and protocol will handle the other functions. The technical term for this idea isbinding. The communication processes that are related to each other are bound, or grouped together, at a particular layer.

Advantages of Reference ModelsThe OSI model is hierarchical, and the same benefits and advantages can apply to any layered model. Advantages of using the OSI layered model include, but are not limited to, the following: It divides the network communication process into smaller and simpler components, thus aiding component development, design, and troubleshooting. It allows multiple-vendor development through standardization of network components. It encourages industry standardization by defining what functions occur at each layer of the model.

It allows various types of network hardware and software to communicate. It prevents changes in one layer from affecting other layers, so it does not hamper development. It also provides a framework for creating and implementing networking standards, devices, and internetworking schemes.

The OSI has seven different layers, divided into two groups. The top three layers define how the applications within the end stations willcommunicate with each other and with users. The bottom four layers define how data is transmitted end to end.

Figure shows the three upperlayers and their functions, and Figure shows the four lower layers and their functions. When you study Figure , understand that the user interfaces with the computer at the Application layer and also that the upper layers areresponsible for applications communicating between hosts. Remember that none of the upper layers knows anything about networking or networkaddresses. Just as Ms. Post wrote the book setting the standards—orprotocols—for human social interaction, the ISO developed the OSI reference model as the precedent and guide for an open network protocol set.

Defining the etiquette of communication models, it remains today the most popular means of comparison for protocol suites. The OSI reference model has the following seven layers: Application layer layer 7 Presentation layer layer 6 Session layer layer 5 Transport layer layer 4 Network layer layer 3 Data Link layer layer 2 Physical layer layer 1 Figure shows a summary of the functions defined at each layer of the OSI model. Take the case of Internet Explorer IE.

The Application layer is also responsible for identifying and establishing the availability of the intended communication partner and determiningwhether sufficient resources for the intended communication exist. These tasks are important because computer applications sometimes require more than only desktop resources. Many network applications provide services forcommunication over enterprise networks, but for present and future internetworking, the need is fast developing to reach beyond the limits of current This means that Microsoft Word, for example, does not reside at the Application layer but instead interfaces with the Application layer protocols.

The Presentation LayerThe Presentation layer gets its name from its purpose: It presents data to the Application layer and is responsible for data translation and codeformatting. This layer is essentially a translator and provides coding and conversion functions.

A successful data-transfer technique is to adapt the data intoa standard format before transmission. By providing translation services, the Presentation layer ensures that datatransferred from the Application layer of one system can be read by the Application layer of another one.

The OSI has protocol standards that define how standard data should be formatted. Tasks like data compression, decompression, encryption,and decryption are associated with this layer.

Some Presentation layer standards are involved in multimedia operations too. The Session LayerThe Session layer is responsible for setting up, managing, and then tearing down sessions between Presentation layer entities.

This layer alsoprovides dialog control between devices, or nodes. It coordinates communication between systems and serves to organize their communication byoffering three different modes: simplex, half duplex, and full duplex. The Transport LayerThe Transport layer segments and reassembles data into a data stream.

Services located in the Transport layer segment and reassemble datafrom upper-layer applications and unite it into the same data stream.

They provide end-to-end data transport services and can establish a logicalconnection between the sending host and destination host on an internetwork. The Transport layer is responsible for providing mechanisms for multiplexing upper-layer applications, establishing sessions, and tearing downvirtual circuits. It also hides details of any network-dependent information from the higher layers by providing transparent data transfer.

The term reliable networking can be used at the Transport layer. It means that acknowledgments, sequencing, and flow control will be used. The Transport layer can be connectionless or connection oriented. However, Cisco is mostly concerned with you understanding the connection-oriented portion of the Transport layer. The following sections will provide the skinny on the connection-oriented reliable protocol of the Transportlayer.

Flow ControlData integrity is ensured at the Transport layer by maintaining flow control and by allowing applications to request reliable data transport betweensystems. Flow control prevents a sending host on one side of the connection from overflowing the buffers in the receiving host—an event that canresult in lost data. Reliable data transport employs a connection-oriented communications session between systems, and the protocols involvedensure that the following will be achieved: The segments delivered are acknowledged back to the sender upon their reception.

Any segments not acknowledged are retransmitted. Segments are sequenced back into their proper order upon arrival at their destination. A manageable data flow is maintained in order to avoid congestion, overloading, and data loss.

The purpose of flow control is to provide a means for the receiver to govern the amount of data sent by the sender. Connection-Oriented CommunicationIn reliable transport operation, a device that wants to transmit sets up a connection-oriented communication session with a remote device bycreating a session.

The transmitting device first establishes a connection-oriented session with its peer system, which is called a call setup or a Data is then transferred; when the transfer is finished, a call termination takes place to tear down the virtual circuit.

Figure depicts a typical reliable session taking place between sending and receiving systems. The two operating systemscommunicate by sending messages over the network confirming that the transfer is approved and that both sides are ready for it to take place.

After all of this required synchronization takes place, a connection is fully established and the data transfer begins this virtual circuit setup is calledoverhead! Figure Establishing a connection-oriented session While the information is being transferred between hosts, the two machines periodically check in with each other, communicating through theirprotocol software to ensure that all is going well and that the data is being received properly.

The next segments acknowledge the request and establish connection parameters—the rules—between hosts. The final segment is also an acknowledgment. It notifies the destination host that the connection agreement has been accepted and that the actual connection has been established. Data transfer can now begin. Sometimes during a transfer, congestion can occur because a high-speedcomputer is generating data traffic a lot faster than the network can handle transferring.

A bunch of computers simultaneously sending datagramsthrough a single gateway or destination can also botch things up nicely. In the latter case, a gateway or destination can become congested eventhough no single source caused the problem.

In either case, the problem is basically akin to a freeway bottleneck—too much traffic for too small acapacity. Okay, so what happens when a machine receives a flood of datagrams too quickly for it to process? It stores them in a memory section called abuffer.

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